Risk factors

  • Article |

    Data on the nutrient content of almost 3,000 aquatic animal-source foods is combined with a food-systems model to show that an increase in aquatic-food production could reduce the inadequate intake of most nutrients.

    • Christopher D. Golden
    • , J. Zachary Koehn
    •  & Shakuntala H. Thilsted
  • Article |

    Analysis of community-tested cases of SARS-CoV-2 indicates that the B.1.1.7 variant is not only more transmissible than pre-existing variants, but may also cause more severe illness, and is associated with a higher risk of death.

    • Nicholas G. Davies
    • , Christopher I. Jarvis
    •  & Ruth H. Keogh
  • Article |

    Observations and air-quality modelling reveal that the sources of particulate matter and oxidative potential in Europe are different, implying that reducing mass concentrations of particulate matter alone may not reduce oxidative potential.

    • Kaspar R. Daellenbach
    • , Gaëlle Uzu
    •  & André S. H. Prévôt
  • Article
    | Open Access

    From 1980 to 2018, the levels of total and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreased in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe.

    • Cristina Taddei
    • , Bin Zhou
    •  & Majid Ezzati
  • Article |

    Aerodynamic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in two hospitals in Wuhan indicates that SARS-CoV-2 may have the potential to be transmitted through aerosols, although the infectivity of the virus RNA was not established in this study.

    • Yuan Liu
    • , Zhi Ning
    •  & Ke Lan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    High-resolution subnational mapping of child growth failure indicators for 105 low- and middle-income countries between 2000 and 2017 shows that, despite considerable progress, substantial geographical inequalities still exist in some countries.

    • Damaris K. Kinyoki
    • , Aaron E. Osgood-Zimmerman
    •  & Simon I. Hay
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Analyses of the proportions of individuals who have completed key levels of schooling across all low- and middle-income countries from 2000 to 2017 reveal inequalities across countries as well as within populations.

    • Nicholas Graetz
    • , Lauren Woyczynski
    •  & Simon I. Hay
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A US national experiment showed that a short, online, self-administered growth mindset intervention can increase adolescents’ grades and advanced course-taking, and identified the types of school that were poised to benefit the most.

    • David S. Yeager
    • , Paul Hanselman
    •  & Carol S. Dweck
  • Letter
    | Open Access

    The prevalence of improved housing (with improved drinking water and sanitation, sufficient living area and durable construction) in urban and rural sub-Saharan Africa doubled between 2000 and 2015.

    • Lucy S. Tusting
    • , Donal Bisanzio
    •  & Samir Bhatt
  • Article |

    The authors systematically characterize structural variation in the genomes of gut microbiota and show that they are associated with bacterial fitness and with host risk factors, and that examining genes coded in these regions facilitates investigation of mechanisms that may underlie these associations.

    • David Zeevi
    • , Tal Korem
    •  & Eran Segal
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Geospatial estimates of child growth failure in Africa provide a baseline for measuring progress and a precision public health platform to target interventions to those populations with the greatest need.

    • Aaron Osgood-Zimmerman
    • , Anoushka I. Millear
    •  & Simon I. Hay
  • Analysis
    | Open Access

    Investing in adolescents as the parents of the next generation is important for the wellbeing of current and future generations.

    • George C. Patton
    • , Craig A. Olsson
    •  & Susan M. Sawyer
  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • Song Wu
    • , Wei Zhu
    •  & Yusuf A. Hannun
  • Letter |

    The cysteine protease CPR-4, a cathepsin B homologue, is identified as a radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) factor in nematodes in response to ultraviolet or ionizing radiation, and causes inhibition of cell death and increased embryonic lethality.

    • Yu Peng
    • , Man Zhang
    •  & Ding Xue
  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • Xiao Dong
    • , Brandon Milholland
    •  & Jan Vijg
  • Letter |

    Analysis of a comprehensive database of mammalian host–virus relationships reveals that both the total number of viruses that infect a given species and the proportion likely to be zoonotic are predictable and that this enables identification of mammalian species and geographic locations where novel zoonoses are likely to be found.

    • Kevin J. Olival
    • , Parviez R. Hosseini
    •  & Peter Daszak
  • Review Article |

    A review into the complex effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the dopamine system, examining data from animal and human studies and discussing the necessary future direction of research.

    • Michael A. P. Bloomfield
    • , Abhishekh H. Ashok
    •  & Oliver D. Howes
  • Letter |

    Entertaining movies addressing both individual values and marriageability can provide a way to change cultural attitudes towards female genital cutting within certain cultures.

    • Sonja Vogt
    • , Nadia Ahmed Mohmmed Zaid
    •  & Charles Efferson
  • Brief Communication |

    • John Collinge
    • , Zane Jaunmuktane
    •  & Sebastian Brandner
  • Letter |

    Growing evidence from metagenome-wide association studies link multiple common disorders to microbial dysbiosis but effects of drug treatment are often not accounted for; here, the authors re-analyse two previous metagenomic studies of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients together with a novel cohort to determine the effects of the widely prescribed antidiabetic drug metformin and highlight the need to distinguish the effects of a disease from the effects of treatment on the gut microbiota.

    • Kristoffer Forslund
    • , Falk Hildebrand
    •  & Oluf Pedersen
  • Letter |

    Increased maternal age is known to increase the risk of congenital heart disease in offspring; here, this link is investigated by transplanting ovaries between young and old mice, revealing that the maternal-age-associated risk is independent of the age of the ovaries but depends on the age of the mother, and that this risk can be mitigated by maternal genetic background or exercise.

    • Claire E. Schulkey
    • , Suk D. Regmi
    •  & Patrick Y. Jay
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The African Genome Variation Project contains the whole-genome sequences of 320 individuals and dense genotypes on 1,481 individuals from sub-Saharan Africa; it enables the design and interpretation of genomic studies, with implications for finding disease loci and clues to human origins.

    • Deepti Gurdasani
    • , Tommy Carstensen
    •  & Manjinder S. Sandhu
  • Article |

    As incomes grow, diets change, with varying impacts on human health and the environment; here the links are examined and suggestions made for diets that both improve health and minimize environmental impacts.

    • David Tilman
    •  & Michael Clark
  • Letter |

    For the first time under reproducible and fully double-blinded conditions, it is shown that anthropogenic electromagnetic noise below the WHO limits affects a biological system: night-migrating birds lose the ability to use the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation when exposed to anthropogenic electromagnetic noise at strengths routinely produced by commonly used electronic devices.

    • Svenja Engels
    • , Nils-Lasse Schneider
    •  & Henrik Mouritsen
  • Article |

    The authors report the largest family-trio exome sequencing study of schizophrenia to date; mutations are overrepresented in genes for glutamatergic synaptic proteins and also genes mutated in autism and intellectual disability, providing insights into aetiological mechanisms and pathopshyisology shared with other neurodevelopmental disorders.

    • Menachem Fromer
    • , Andrew J. Pocklington
    •  & Michael C. O’Donovan
  • Article |

    Exome sequence analysis of more than 5,000 schizophrenia cases and controls identifies a polygenic burden primarily arising from rare, disruptive mutations distributed across many genes, among which are those encoding voltage-gated calcium ion channels and the signalling complex formed by the ARC protein of the postsynaptic density; as in autism, mutations were also found in homologues of known targets of the fragile X mental retardation protein.

    • Shaun M. Purcell
    • , Jennifer L. Moran
    •  & Pamela Sklar
  • Article |

    Whole-genome sequencing of 78 Icelandic parent–offspring trios is used to study the de novo mutation rate at the genome-wide level; the rate is shown to increase by about two mutations a year as a function of the increasing age of the father at conception, highlighting the importance of father’s age on the risk of diseases such as autism and schizophrenia.

    • Augustine Kong
    • , Michael L. Frigge
    •  & Kari Stefansson