Neuroscience

  • Article |

    A theory of motor learning based on the principle of contextual inference reveals that adaptation can arise by both creating and updating memories and changing how existing memories are differentially expressed, and predicts evoked recovery and context-dependent single-trial learning.

    • James B. Heald
    • , Máté Lengyel
    •  & Daniel M. Wolpert
  • Article |

    Genetic manipulation of skin peripheral sensory neurons in mice shows that cortical neuron responses to touch reflect subcortical mixing of signals from both rapidly adapting and slowly adapting low-threshold mechanoreceptors.

    • Alan J. Emanuel
    • , Brendan P. Lehnert
    •  & David D. Ginty
  • Article |

    Activity in anterior deep cerebellar nuclei reduces food consumption in mice without reducing metabolic rate, potentially identifying a therapeutic target for disorders involving excessive eating.

    • Aloysius Y. T. Low
    • , Nitsan Goldstein
    •  & J. Nicholas Betley
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A new technique called immunoGAM, which combines genome architecture mapping (GAM) with immunoselection, enabled the discovery of specialized chromatin conformations linked to gene expression in specific cell populations from mouse brain tissues.

    • Warren Winick-Ng
    • , Alexander Kukalev
    •  & Ana Pombo
  • Article |

    Analyses of layer 5 cortical pyramidal neurons in 10 mammalian species show that human neurons are distinct in that they do not follow the expected allometric relationship between neuron size and membrane conductance.

    • Lou Beaulieu-Laroche
    • , Norma J. Brown
    •  & Mark T. Harnett
  • Article |

    In the post-mitotic nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans, the promotion of a mature neuronal transcription program is controlled by the developmental-stage-specific upregulation of the microRNA LIN-4 and the subsequent repression of its target, the transcription factor lin-14.

    • HaoSheng Sun
    •  & Oliver Hobert
  • Article |

    The human-specific gene duplication SRGAP2C is identified as a modifier of structural and functional features of cortical circuits leading to improved behavioural performance that may have allowed the emergence of cognitive properties characterizing the human brain.

    • Ewoud R. E. Schmidt
    • , Hanzhi T. Zhao
    •  & Franck Polleux
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Dedicated cells in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex map an animal s instantaneous position in space; by contrast, its future goal location is represented in the orbitofrontal cortex, a structure within the broader circuit.

    • Raunak Basu
    • , Robert Gebauer
    •  & Hiroshi T. Ito
  • Article |

    In male zebra finches, song practice and courtship song performance are associated with distinct patterns of neural activity in the basal ganglia, resulting in reduced vocal variability during performance.

    • Jonnathan Singh Alvarado
    • , Jack Goffinet
    •  & Richard Mooney
  • Article |

    Enteric glial cells have tissue-wide immunoregulatory roles through the upregulation of IFNγ-dependent genes both at steady state and after parasite infection, promoting immune homeostasis and CXCL10-mediated tissue repair after pathogen-induced intestinal damage in mice.

    • Fränze Progatzky
    • , Michael Shapiro
    •  & Vassilis Pachnis
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The BRAIN Initiative Cell Census Network has constructed a multimodal cell census and atlas of the mammalian primary motor cortex in a landmark effort towards understanding brain cell-type diversity, neural circuit organization and brain function.

    • Edward M. Callaway
    • , Hong-Wei Dong
    •  & Susan Sunkin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    An examination of motor cortex in humans, marmosets and mice reveals a generally conserved cellular makeup that is likely to extend to many mammalian species, but also differences in gene expression, DNA methylation and chromatin state that lead to species-dependent specializations.

    • Trygve E. Bakken
    • , Nikolas L. Jorstad
    •  & Ed S. Lein
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mesoscale connectomic mapping of the cortico–basal ganglia–thalamic network reveals key architectural and information processing features.

    • Nicholas N. Foster
    • , Joshua Barry
    •  & Hong-Wei Dong
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sparse labelling and whole-brain imaging are used to reconstruct and classify brain-wide complete morphologies of 1,741 individual neurons in the mouse brain, revealing a dependence on both brain region and transcriptomic profile.

    • Hanchuan Peng
    • , Peng Xie
    •  & Hongkui Zeng
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A combination of genetic strategies and tools is used to define and fate-map different subtypes of glutamatergic pyramidal neurons according to their developmental and molecular programs, providing insight into the assembly of cortical processing networks.

    • Katherine S. Matho
    • , Dhananjay Huilgol
    •  & Z. Josh Huang
  • Article |

    Astrocytes can respond to diseases and injuries of the central nervous system by driving the death of neurons and mature oligodendrocytes through the delivery of long-chain saturated fatty acids contained in lipoparticles.

    • Kevin A. Guttenplan
    • , Maya K. Weigel
    •  & Ben A. Barres
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A comprehensive survey of the epigenome from 45 regions of the mouse cortex, hippocampus, striatum, pallidum and olfactory areas using single-nucleus DNA methylation sequencing enables identification of 161 cell clusters with distinct locations and projection targets and provides insights into the regulatory landscape underlying neuronal diversity and spatial regulation.

    • Hanqing Liu
    • , Jingtian Zhou
    •  & Joseph R. Ecker
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Multi-modal analysis is used to generate a 3D atlas of the upper limb area of the mouse primary motor cortex, providing a framework for future studies of motor control circuitry.

    • Rodrigo Muñoz-Castañeda
    • , Brian Zingg
    •  & Hong-Wei Dong
  • Article |

    Experiments in mice identify the medial septum as an extrahippocampal input region that is critical for social memory formation, and show that modulation of the medial septum by serotonin regulates the stability of social memories.

    • Xiaoting Wu
    • , Wade Morishita
    •  & Robert C. Malenka
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Combined patch clamp recording, biocytin staining and single-cell RNA-sequencing of human neurocortical neurons shows an expansion of glutamatergic neuron types relative to mouse that characterizes the greater complexity of the human neocortex.

    • Jim Berg
    • , Staci A. Sorensen
    •  & Ed S. Lein
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Quantitative analysis of the methylation of mouse cortical neurons that project to different cortical and subcortical target regions provides insight into genetic mechanisms that contribute to differences in cell function.

    • Zhuzhu Zhang
    • , Jingtian Zhou
    •  & Edward M. Callaway
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Two different cell types in the mediodorsal thalamus have complementary roles in decision-making, with one type of mediodorsal projection amplifying prefrontal activity under low signal levels and one type suppressing it under high noise levels.

    • Arghya Mukherjee
    • , Norman H. Lam
    •  & Michael M. Halassa
  • Article |

    Studies in mice, humans and macaques show that retinoic acid signalling has an important role in the development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in primates and may also underlie the evolutionary diversification of the PFC.

    • Mikihito Shibata
    • , Kartik Pattabiraman
    •  & Nenad Sestan
  • Article |

    Cryo-electron microscopy structures of tau filaments from progressive supranuclear palsy and other tauopathies reveal new filament conformations, and suggest that tauopathies can be classified on several different levels according to their filament folds.

    • Yang Shi
    • , Wenjuan Zhang
    •  & Sjors H. W. Scheres
  • Article |

    The transcriptional programs and chromatin accessibility changes that cause two related interneuronal subtypes to diverge from common developmental origins and acquire specialized properties are elucidated.

    • Kathryn C. Allaway
    • , Mariano I. Gabitto
    •  & Gord Fishell
  • Article |

    Cell-type-specific electrophysiological recording, fibre photometry and optogenetic manipulations in mice show that dopamine signals from the ventral tegmental area to the lateral entorhinal cortex have a key role in cue–reward associative learning.

    • Jason Y. Lee
    • , Heechul Jun
    •  & Kei M. Igarashi
  • Article |

    The authors report the structures of glutamate-gated kainate receptors in complex with NETO2 in both the resting and the desensitized states and reveal how kainate receptors in the brain are regulated by NETO2.

    • Lingli He
    • , Jiahui Sun
    •  & Yan Zhao