Neuroscience

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Simultaneous recordings from hundreds of grid cells in rats, combined with topological data analysis, show that network activity in grid cells resides on a toroidal manifold that is invariant across environments and brain states.

    • Richard J. Gardner
    • , Erik Hermansen
    •  & Edvard I. Moser
  • Article |

    Using intracranial electrocorticography and a series of motor tasks, a speech planning network that is central to natural language generation during social interaction is identified.

    • Gregg A. Castellucci
    • , Christopher K. Kovach
    •  & Michael A. Long
  • Article |

    A chromatin accessibility atlas of 240,919 cells in the adult and developing Drosophila brain reveals 95,000 enhancers, which are integrated in cell-type specific enhancer gene regulatory networks and decoded into combinations of functional transcription factor binding sites using deep learning.

    • Jasper Janssens
    • , Sara Aibar
    •  & Stein Aerts
  • Article |

    Studies using neural ensemble recordings in rats show that cells in the piriform cortex carry a spatial representation of the environment and link locations to olfactory sensory inputs.

    • Cindy Poo
    • , Gautam Agarwal
    •  & Zachary F. Mainen
  • Article |

    V-SYNTHES, a scalable and computationally cost-effective synthon-based approach to compound screening, identified compounds with a high affinity for CB2 and CB1 in a hierarchical structure-based screen of more than 11 billion compounds.

    • Arman A. Sadybekov
    • , Anastasiia V. Sadybekov
    •  & Vsevolod Katritch
  • Article |

    Cryo-electron microscopy of aggregated TDP-43 from postmortem brain tissue of individuals who had ALS with FTLD reveals a filament structure with distinct features to other neuropathological protein filaments, such as those of tau and α-synuclein.

    • Diana Arseni
    • , Masato Hasegawa
    •  & Benjamin Ryskeldi-Falcon
  • Article |

    In memory consolidation, the hippocampus has a unique way to preferentially amplify behaviour-relevant information that entails ‘replaying’ this information during periods of rest.

    • Satoshi Terada
    • , Tristan Geiller
    •  & Attila Losonczy
  • Article |

    Single-cell tracing and optogenetics manipulation in mice are used to show how spatial tuning of individual pyramidal cells in CA1 can propagate to and be amplified by their local subnetwork of neurons.

    • Tristan Geiller
    • , Sadra Sadeh
    •  & Attila Losonczy
  • Article |

    A theory of motor learning based on the principle of contextual inference reveals that adaptation can arise by both creating and updating memories and changing how existing memories are differentially expressed, and predicts evoked recovery and context-dependent single-trial learning.

    • James B. Heald
    • , Máté Lengyel
    •  & Daniel M. Wolpert
  • Article |

    Genetic manipulation of skin peripheral sensory neurons in mice shows that cortical neuron responses to touch reflect subcortical mixing of signals from both rapidly adapting and slowly adapting low-threshold mechanoreceptors.

    • Alan J. Emanuel
    • , Brendan P. Lehnert
    •  & David D. Ginty
  • Article |

    Activity in anterior deep cerebellar nuclei reduces food consumption in mice without reducing metabolic rate, potentially identifying a therapeutic target for disorders involving excessive eating.

    • Aloysius Y. T. Low
    • , Nitsan Goldstein
    •  & J. Nicholas Betley
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A new technique called immunoGAM, which combines genome architecture mapping (GAM) with immunoselection, enabled the discovery of specialized chromatin conformations linked to gene expression in specific cell populations from mouse brain tissues.

    • Warren Winick-Ng
    • , Alexander Kukalev
    •  & Ana Pombo
  • Article |

    Analyses of layer 5 cortical pyramidal neurons in 10 mammalian species show that human neurons are distinct in that they do not follow the expected allometric relationship between neuron size and membrane conductance.

    • Lou Beaulieu-Laroche
    • , Norma J. Brown
    •  & Mark T. Harnett
  • Article |

    In the post-mitotic nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans, the promotion of a mature neuronal transcription program is controlled by the developmental-stage-specific upregulation of the microRNA LIN-4 and the subsequent repression of its target, the transcription factor lin-14.

    • HaoSheng Sun
    •  & Oliver Hobert
  • Article |

    The human-specific gene duplication SRGAP2C is identified as a modifier of structural and functional features of cortical circuits leading to improved behavioural performance that may have allowed the emergence of cognitive properties characterizing the human brain.

    • Ewoud R. E. Schmidt
    • , Hanzhi T. Zhao
    •  & Franck Polleux
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Dedicated cells in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex map an animal s instantaneous position in space; by contrast, its future goal location is represented in the orbitofrontal cortex, a structure within the broader circuit.

    • Raunak Basu
    • , Robert Gebauer
    •  & Hiroshi T. Ito
  • Article |

    In male zebra finches, song practice and courtship song performance are associated with distinct patterns of neural activity in the basal ganglia, resulting in reduced vocal variability during performance.

    • Jonnathan Singh Alvarado
    • , Jack Goffinet
    •  & Richard Mooney
  • Article |

    Enteric glial cells have tissue-wide immunoregulatory roles through the upregulation of IFNγ-dependent genes both at steady state and after parasite infection, promoting immune homeostasis and CXCL10-mediated tissue repair after pathogen-induced intestinal damage in mice.

    • Fränze Progatzky
    • , Michael Shapiro
    •  & Vassilis Pachnis
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The BRAIN Initiative Cell Census Network has constructed a multimodal cell census and atlas of the mammalian primary motor cortex in a landmark effort towards understanding brain cell-type diversity, neural circuit organization and brain function.

    • Edward M. Callaway
    • , Hong-Wei Dong
    •  & Susan Sunkin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    An examination of motor cortex in humans, marmosets and mice reveals a generally conserved cellular makeup that is likely to extend to many mammalian species, but also differences in gene expression, DNA methylation and chromatin state that lead to species-dependent specializations.

    • Trygve E. Bakken
    • , Nikolas L. Jorstad
    •  & Ed S. Lein
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mesoscale connectomic mapping of the cortico–basal ganglia–thalamic network reveals key architectural and information processing features.

    • Nicholas N. Foster
    • , Joshua Barry
    •  & Hong-Wei Dong
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sparse labelling and whole-brain imaging are used to reconstruct and classify brain-wide complete morphologies of 1,741 individual neurons in the mouse brain, revealing a dependence on both brain region and transcriptomic profile.

    • Hanchuan Peng
    • , Peng Xie
    •  & Hongkui Zeng
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A combination of genetic strategies and tools is used to define and fate-map different subtypes of glutamatergic pyramidal neurons according to their developmental and molecular programs, providing insight into the assembly of cortical processing networks.

    • Katherine S. Matho
    • , Dhananjay Huilgol
    •  & Z. Josh Huang
  • Article |

    Astrocytes can respond to diseases and injuries of the central nervous system by driving the death of neurons and mature oligodendrocytes through the delivery of long-chain saturated fatty acids contained in lipoparticles.

    • Kevin A. Guttenplan
    • , Maya K. Weigel
    •  & Ben A. Barres
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A comprehensive survey of the epigenome from 45 regions of the mouse cortex, hippocampus, striatum, pallidum and olfactory areas using single-nucleus DNA methylation sequencing enables identification of 161 cell clusters with distinct locations and projection targets and provides insights into the regulatory landscape underlying neuronal diversity and spatial regulation.

    • Hanqing Liu
    • , Jingtian Zhou
    •  & Joseph R. Ecker
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Multi-modal analysis is used to generate a 3D atlas of the upper limb area of the mouse primary motor cortex, providing a framework for future studies of motor control circuitry.

    • Rodrigo Muñoz-Castañeda
    • , Brian Zingg
    •  & Hong-Wei Dong
  • Article |

    Experiments in mice identify the medial septum as an extrahippocampal input region that is critical for social memory formation, and show that modulation of the medial septum by serotonin regulates the stability of social memories.

    • Xiaoting Wu
    • , Wade Morishita
    •  & Robert C. Malenka
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Combined patch clamp recording, biocytin staining and single-cell RNA-sequencing of human neurocortical neurons shows an expansion of glutamatergic neuron types relative to mouse that characterizes the greater complexity of the human neocortex.

    • Jim Berg
    • , Staci A. Sorensen
    •  & Ed S. Lein