Mathematics and computing

  • Article |

    A zero-knowledge proof, which can be used to verify secret information, is reported here with security that is enforced by the laws of special relativity.

    • Pouriya Alikhani
    • , Nicolas Brunner
    •  & Hugo Zbinden
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Modelling highlights international travel as the main driver of the introduction of SARS-CoV-2 to Europe and the USA, and suggests that introductions and local transmission may have begun in January 2020.

    • Jessica T. Davis
    • , Matteo Chinazzi
    •  & Alessandro Vespignani
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A biologically informed, interpretable deep learning model has been developed to evaluate molecular drivers of resistance to cancer treatment, predict clinical outcomes and guide hypotheses on disease progression.

    • Haitham A. Elmarakeby
    • , Justin Hwang
    •  & Eliezer M. Van Allen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Principles from the field of fair division are used to develop selection algorithms for citizens’ assemblies that produce panels that are representative of the population while simultaneously selecting individuals with near-equal probabilities.

    • Bailey Flanigan
    • , Paul Gölz
    •  & Ariel D. Procaccia
  • Article |

    Machine learning tools are used to greatly accelerate chip layout design, by posing chip floorplanning as a reinforcement learning problem and using neural networks to generate high-performance chip layouts.

    • Azalia Mirhoseini
    • , Anna Goldie
    •  & Jeff Dean
  • Perspective |

    This Perspective discusses how high-energy-density physics could tap the potential of AI-inspired algorithms for extracting relevant information and how data-driven automatic control routines may be used for optimizing high-repetition-rate experiments.

    • Peter W. Hatfield
    • , Jim A. Gaffney
    •  & Ben Williams
  • Article |

    A deep-learning-based algorithm uses routinely acquired histology slides to provide a differential diagnosis for the origin of the primary tumour for complicated cases of metastatic tumours and cancers of unknown primary origin.

    • Ming Y. Lu
    • , Tiffany Y. Chen
    •  & Faisal Mahmood
  • Article |

    The pressure dependence and magnetic field dependence of the specific heat of a quantum magnet, SrCu2(BO3)2, demonstrate that its phase diagram contains a line of first-order transitions terminating at a critical point, in analogy with water.

    • J. Larrea Jiménez
    • , S. P. G. Crone
    •  & F. Mila
  • Article |

    A theoretical study of non-reciprocity in collective phenomena reveals the emergence of time-dependent phases heralded by exceptional points in contexts ranging from synchronization and flocking to pattern formation.

    • Michel Fruchart
    • , Ryo Hanai
    •  & Vincenzo Vitelli
  • Article |

    An artificial intelligence system that can engage in a competitive debate with humans is presented.

    • Noam Slonim
    • , Yonatan Bilu
    •  & Ranit Aharonov
  • Article |

    A reinforcement learning experiment using a programmable integrated nanophotonic processor shows that a quantum communication channel with the environment speeds up the learning process of an agent.

    • V. Saggio
    • , B. E. Asenbeck
    •  & P. Walther
  • Article |

    A reinforcement learning algorithm that explicitly remembers promising states and returns to them as a basis for further exploration solves all as-yet-unsolved Atari games and out-performs previous algorithms on Montezuma’s Revenge and Pitfall.

    • Adrien Ecoffet
    • , Joost Huizinga
    •  & Jeff Clune
  • Article |

    Bayesian optimization is applied in chemical synthesis towards the optimization of various organic reactions and is found to outperform scientists in both average optimization efficiency and consistency.

    • Benjamin J. Shields
    • , Jason Stevens
    •  & Abigail G. Doyle
  • Article |

    An integrated photonic processor, based on phase-change-material memory arrays and chip-based optical frequency combs, which can operate at speeds of trillions of multiply-accumulate (MAC) operations per second, is demonstrated.

    • J. Feldmann
    • , N. Youngblood
    •  & H. Bhaskaran
  • Article |

    A reinforcement-learning algorithm that combines a tree-based search with a learned model achieves superhuman performance in high-performance planning and visually complex domains, without any knowledge of their underlying dynamics.

    • Julian Schrittwieser
    • , Ioannis Antonoglou
    •  & David Silver
  • Article |

    An epidemiological model that integrates fine-grained mobility networks illuminates mobility-related mechanisms that contribute to higher infection rates among disadvantaged socioeconomic and racial groups, and finds that restricting maximum occupancy at locations is especially effective for curbing infections.

    • Serina Chang
    • , Emma Pierson
    •  & Jure Leskovec
  • Review Article
    | Open Access

    NumPy is the primary array programming library for Python; here its fundamental concepts are reviewed and its evolution into a flexible interoperability layer between increasingly specialized computational libraries is discussed.

    • Charles R. Harris
    • , K. Jarrod Millman
    •  & Travis E. Oliphant
  • Review Article |

    Breakthroughs in artificial intelligence and low-cost, contactless sensors have given rise to an ambient intelligence that can potentially improve the physical execution of healthcare delivery, if used in a thoughtful manner.

    • Albert Haque
    • , Arnold Milstein
    •  & Li Fei-Fei
  • Article |

    A video-based deep learning algorithm—EchoNet-Dynamic—accurately identifies subtle changes in ejection fraction and classifies heart failure with reduced ejection fraction using information from multiple cardiac cycles.

    • David Ouyang
    • , Bryan He
    •  & James Y. Zou
  • Article |

    A theoretical framework describing the hydrodynamic interactions between a passive particle and an active medium in out-of-equilibrium systems predicts long-range Lévy flights for the diffusing particle driven by the density of the active component.

    • Kiyoshi Kanazawa
    • , Tomohiko G. Sano
    •  & Adrian Baule
  • Perspective |

    The authors discuss the potential for sex and gender analysis to foster scientific discovery, improve experimental efficiency and enable social equality.

    • Cara Tannenbaum
    • , Robert P. Ellis
    •  & Londa Schiebinger
  • Letter |

    A probabilistic computer utilizing probabilistic bits, or p-bits, is implemented with stochastic nanomagnetic devices in a neural-network-inspired electrical circuit operating at room temperature and demonstrates integer factorization up to 945.

    • William A. Borders
    • , Ahmed Z. Pervaiz
    •  & Supriyo Datta
  • Letter |

    A statistical forecast model using a deep-learning approach produces useful forecasts of El Niño/Southern Oscillation events with lead times of up to one and a half years.

    • Yoo-Geun Ham
    • , Jeong-Hwan Kim
    •  & Jing-Jia Luo
  • Letter |

    Human scientists make unrepresentative chemical reagent and reaction condition choices, and machine-learning algorithms trained on human-selected experiments are less capable of successfully predicting reaction outcomes than those trained on randomly generated experiments.

    • Xiwen Jia
    • , Allyson Lynch
    •  & Joshua Schrier
  • Letter |

    In a voter game, information gerrymandering can sway the outcome of the vote towards one party, even when both parties have equal sizes and each player has the same influence; and this effect can be exaggerated by strategically placed zealots or automated bots.

    • Alexander J. Stewart
    • , Mohsen Mosleh
    •  & Joshua B. Plotkin
  • Article |

    An interconnected network made of superconducting microwave resonators is created as a step towards quantum simulations of interacting particles in hyperbolic space.

    • Alicia J. Kollár
    • , Mattias Fitzpatrick
    •  & Andrew A. Houck
  • Review Article |

    Understanding the behaviour of the machines powered by artificial intelligence that increasingly mediate our social, cultural, economic and political interactions is essential to our ability to control the actions of these intelligent machines, reap their benefits and minimize their harms.

    • Iyad Rahwan
    • , Manuel Cebrian
    •  & Michael Wellman
  • Letter |

    A set of 355 self-assembling DNA ‘tiles’ can be reprogrammed to implement many different computer algorithms—including sorting, palindrome testing and divisibility by three—suggesting that molecular self-assembly could be a reliable algorithmic component in programmable chemical systems.

    • Damien Woods
    • , David Doty
    •  & Erik Winfree
  • Letter |

    Two classification algorithms that use the quantum state space to produce feature maps are demonstrated on a superconducting processor, enabling the solution of problems when the feature space is large and the kernel functions are computationally expensive to estimate.

    • Vojtěch Havlíček
    • , Antonio D. Córcoles
    •  & Jay M. Gambetta
  • Letter |

    Hubble Space Telescope observations of the seventh inner moon of Neptune, Hippocamp, show that it is smaller than the other six, orbits near Proteus and probably originates from a fragment of Proteus.

    • M. R. Showalter
    • , I. de Pater
    •  & R. S. French