• Article
    | Open Access

    A ‘triangulation’ approach combining linguistics, archaeology and genetics suggests that the origin and spread of Transeurasian family of languages can be traced back to early millet farmers in Neolithic North East Asia.

    • Martine Robbeets
    • , Remco Bouckaert
    •  & Chao Ning
  • Article |

    Analyses of layer 5 cortical pyramidal neurons in 10 mammalian species show that human neurons are distinct in that they do not follow the expected allometric relationship between neuron size and membrane conductance.

    • Lou Beaulieu-Laroche
    • , Norma J. Brown
    •  & Mark T. Harnett
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Interpretation of the early Cambrian fossil Protomelission gatehousei9 as a potential stem-group bryozoan realigns the fossil record with molecular clock estimations of the origins of Bryozoa.

    • Zhiliang Zhang
    • , Zhifei Zhang
    •  & Glenn A. Brock
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Monitoring of western chimpanzee populations in Guinea-Bissau and Côte d’Ivoire reveals the presence of rare and different genotypes of Mycobacterium leprae, suggesting greater circulation in wild animals than previously thought.

    • Kimberley J. Hockings
    • , Benjamin Mubemba
    •  & Fabian H. Leendertz
  • Article
    | Open Access

    An examination of motor cortex in humans, marmosets and mice reveals a generally conserved cellular makeup that is likely to extend to many mammalian species, but also differences in gene expression, DNA methylation and chromatin state that lead to species-dependent specializations.

    • Trygve E. Bakken
    • , Nikolas L. Jorstad
    •  & Ed S. Lein
  • Article |

    Structural, functional and localization studies reveal that Geobacter sulfurreducens pili cannot behave as microbial nanowires, instead functioning in a similar way to secretion pseudopili to export cytochrome nanowires that are essential for extracellular electron transfer.

    • Yangqi Gu
    • , Vishok Srikanth
    •  & Nikhil S. Malvankar
  • Article |

    Taytalura alcoberi, represented by a three-dimensionally preserved skull from the Late Triassic epoch of Argentina, is phylogenetically inferred as the earliest known lepidosauromorph, and reveals that sphenodontian skull architecture is plesiomorphic for lepidosaurs.

    • Ricardo N. Martínez
    • , Tiago R. Simões
    •  & Sebastián Apesteguía
  • Article |

    Laser-capture microdissection and mini-bulk exome sequencing are combined to analyse somatic mutations in morphologically normal tissues from nine organs from five donors, revealing variation in mutation burdens, mutational signatures and clonal expansions.

    • Ruoyan Li
    • , Lin Di
    •  & Chen Wu
  • Article |

    The authors report the mutational landscape of 29 cell types from microdissected biopsies from 19 organs and explore the mechanisms underlying mutation rates in normal tissues.

    • Luiza Moore
    • , Alex Cagan
    •  & Raheleh Rahbari
  • Article |

    Analysis of the spread of the 20E (EU1) variant of SARS-CoV-2 through Europe suggests that international travel and insufficient containment, rather than increased transmissibility, led to a resurgence of infections.

    • Emma B. Hodcroft
    • , Moira Zuber
    •  & Richard A. Neher
  • Article |

    Analysis of recurved cupules from a newly discovered Early Cretaceous silicified peat in Inner Mongolia, China and comparison with other potentially related Mesozoic plant fossils provides insight into the origins of angiosperms.

    • Gongle Shi
    • , Fabiany Herrera
    •  & Peter R. Crane
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Ancient microbiomes from palaeofaeces are more similar to non-industrialized than industrialized human gut microbiomes regardless of geography, but 39% of their de novo reconstructed genomes represent previously undescribed microbial species.

    • Marsha C. Wibowo
    • , Zhen Yang
    •  & Aleksandar D. Kostic
  • Article |

    The earliest known human burial in Africa, that of a young child, is dated to around 78,000 years ago.

    • María Martinón-Torres
    • , Francesco d’Errico
    •  & Michael D. Petraglia
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A revised, universal nomenclature for the vertebrate genes that encode the oxytocin and vasopressin–vasotocin ligands and receptors will improve our understanding of gene evolution and facilitate the translation of findings across species.

    • Constantina Theofanopoulou
    • , Gregory Gedman
    •  & Erich D. Jarvis
  • Article |

    Genomic analyses of human populations in the Pacific provide insights into the peopling history of the region and reveal episodes of biological adaptation relating to the immune system and lipid metabolism through introgression from archaic hominins and polygenic adaptation.

    • Jeremy Choin
    • , Javier Mendoza-Revilla
    •  & Lluis Quintana-Murci
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The complete assembly of human chromosome 8 resolves previous gaps and reveals hidden complex forms of genetic variation, enabling functional and evolutionary characterization of primate centromeres.

    • Glennis A. Logsdon
    • , Mitchell R. Vollger
    •  & Evan E. Eichler
  • Article |

    Fossiomanus sinensis and Jueconodon cheni, a newly described Early Cretaceous tritylodontid and eutriconodotan, respectively, show convergence on a fossorial body plan and provide insights into the evolution of the axial skeleton in mammaliamorphs.

    • Fangyuan Mao
    • , Chi Zhang
    •  & Jin Meng
  • Article |

    Human populations in the southern Africa interior were collecting non-utilitarian objects at around 105,000 years ago, suggesting that the development of this innovative behaviour did not depend on exploiting coastal resources.

    • Jayne Wilkins
    • , Benjamin J. Schoville
    •  & Amy Hatton
  • Article |

    Growth series of Palaeozoic stem lampreys do not include a filter-feeding larval phase seen in modern lampreys, which suggests that modern lamprey larvae are a poor model of vertebrate ancestry.

    • Tetsuto Miyashita
    • , Robert W. Gess
    •  & Michael I. Coates
  • Article |

    The 501Y.V2 variant of SARS-CoV-2 in South Africa became dominant over other variants within weeks of its emergence, suggesting that this variant is linked to increased transmissibility or immune escape.

    • Houriiyah Tegally
    • , Eduan Wilkinson
    •  & Tulio de Oliveira
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Candidatus Azoamicus ciliaticola’ transfers energy to its ciliate host in the form of ATP and enables this host to breathe nitrate, demonstrating that eukaryotes with remnant mitochondria can secondarily acquire energy-providing endosymbionts.

    • Jon S. Graf
    • , Sina Schorn
    •  & Jana Milucka
  • Article |

    The routes and lengths of migrations of Eurasian Arctic peregrine falcons have probably been shaped by climate change across the Last Glacial Maximum–Holocene transition and by selection for long-term memory acting on ADCY8, respectively.

    • Zhongru Gu
    • , Shengkai Pan
    •  & Xiangjiang Zhan
  • Article |

    Genome-wide data from 166 East Asian individuals dating to between 6000 bc and ad 1000 and from 46 present-day groups provide insights into the histories of mixture and migration of human populations in East Asia.

    • Chuan-Chao Wang
    • , Hui-Yuan Yeh
    •  & David Reich
  • Article |

    Siberian mammoth genomes from the Early and Middle Pleistocene subepochs reveal adaptive changes and a key hybridization event, highlighting the value of deep-time palaeogenomics for studies of speciation and long-term evolutionary trends.

    • Tom van der Valk
    • , Patrícia Pečnerová
    •  & Love Dalén
  • Review Article |

    A Review describes the three key phases that define the origins of modern human ancestry, and highlights the importance of analysing both palaeoanthropological and genomic records to further improve our understanding of our evolutionary history.

    • Anders Bergström
    • , Chris Stringer
    •  & Pontus Skoglund
  • Article |

    A fossil of the Middle Jurassic haramiyidan Vilevolodon diplomylos with a well-preserved malleus, incus and ectotympanic sheds light on the evolutionary transition from a dual to a single function for the ossicles in mammals.

    • Junyou Wang
    • , John R. Wible
    •  & Shundong Bi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The genome of the biofuel crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) reveals climate–gene–biomass associations that underlie adaptation in nature and will facilitate improvements of the yield of this crop for bioenergy production.

    • John T. Lovell
    • , Alice H. MacQueen
    •  & Jeremy Schmutz
  • Perspective |

    Unique biological traits of bats and adaptive evolution associated with flight confer immunotolerance of viral infection that may help to make bats special reservoir hosts for viruses.

    • Aaron T. Irving
    • , Matae Ahn
    •  & Lin-Fa Wang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A chromosome-quality genome of the lungfish Neoceratodus fosteri sheds light on the development of obligate air-breathing and the gain of limb-like gene expression in lobed fins, providing insights into the water-to-land transition in vertebrate evolution.

    • Axel Meyer
    • , Siegfried Schloissnig
    •  & Manfred Schartl