Reviews & Analysis

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  • Rare monogenic obesity is caused by pathogenic variants in single genes, while common obesity mostly has a polygenic basis. This Review discusses genetic obesity traits, the emergence of novel pharmacological treatment options that target the central melanocortin pathway and future innovative therapies.

    • Anke Hinney
    • Antje Körner
    • Pamela Fischer-Posovszky
    Review Article
  • Adipocyte insulin resistance is a driving force for systemic insulin resistance. Advances in human stem cell culture have established conditions for human adipocytes that give rise to a reproducible population of adipocytes that retain a high level of insulin sensitivity, paving the way for high throughput screening approaches.

    • Leon G. Straub
    • Philipp E. Scherer
    News & Views
  • Sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor treatment affects central regulation of appetite and satiety, which results in increased carbohydrate intake. It has now been demonstrated that these effects might be blunted by combining SGLT2 inhibitors with glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists to further facilitate weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    • Matthias Blüher
    News & Views
  • Menopause can increase the risk of diabetes mellitus, while existing diabetes mellitus can cause early menopause. This Review discusses the interaction of diabetes mellitus and the menopause, including therapeutic management strategies for both conditions.

    • Irene Lambrinoudaki
    • Stavroula A. Paschou
    • Dimitrios G. Goulis
    Review Article
  • The actions of growth hormone (GH) on growth and many other processes are well-described. This Review highlights clinical data from patients with acromegaly or GH deficiency, alongside data from cellular and animal studies, to reveal novel actions of GH in fibrosis, cardiovascular function and cancer.

    • John J. Kopchick
    • Reetobrata Basu
    • Vishwajeet Puri
    Review Article
  • This article discusses X chromosome agents of sexual differentiation. These agents could explain some of the sex differences in incidence and severity of particular diseases.

    • Arthur P. Arnold
    Review Article
  • A recent study has generated compelling experimental data on the role of GPR177 and WNT5a in the pathogenesis and treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). The clinical value of these translational findings should be interpreted with caution. However, the limited efficacy of current treatments for PDN warrants further clinical studies on these novel pathways.

    • Rayaz A. Malik
    News & Views
  • This article discusses evidence for the emergence of a different set of complications associated with diabetes mellitus from the traditional ones, outlines the risks and burden of these associated complications and considers implications for the future management of diabetes mellitus.

    • Dunya Tomic
    • Jonathan E. Shaw
    • Dianna J. Magliano
    Review Article
  • This Review highlights evidence that persistent enterovirus infections, particularly coxsackievirus B, trigger and/or accelerate islet autoimmunity in susceptible individuals, thereby leading to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The potential for vaccination or antiviral therapies to prevent T1DM onset is also considered.

    • Magloire Pandoua Nekoua
    • Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou
    • Didier Hober
    Review Article
  • Menopause affects roughly half of the global population, yet many affected people do not receive the treatment they need. This Review discusses currently available menopausal hormonal therapies and novel pharmaceutical alternatives to manage menopausal symptoms.

    • Susan R. Davis
    • Rodney J. Baber
    Review Article
  • By identifying a new means of communication between endothelial cells and adipocytes, researchers provide evidence that the endothelial cells actively provoke lipid release from adipocytes to support capillary growth. This crosstalk ultimately helps to maintain metabolic health in obesity.

    • Martina Rudnicki
    • Tara L. Haas
    News & Views
  • Stem cells in the pituitary master gland remain mystifying; moreover, they have hardly been explored in humans. A new study applied transcriptome and chromatin accessibility profiling at single-cell resolution to human postmortem pituitary glands from individuals of different ages, thereby providing insights into the heterogeneity and regulatory mechanisms of the projected human pituitary stem cell population.

    • Emma Laporte
    • Hugo Vankelecom
    News & Views
  • This Review considers the principal regulators of the processes of biomineralization and crystallization in human physiology. In addition, disorders of biomineralization are discussed, including bone disorders and disorders of extraskeletal mineralization.

    • Michael T. Collins
    • Gemma Marcucci
    • Rajesh V. Thakker
    Review Article
  • Macrophages in the liver can undergo phenotypic changes during metabolic diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This Review discusses our current understanding of the changes in the proportions and functions of liver macrophage populations in health and NAFLD.

    • Emelie Barreby
    • Ping Chen
    • Myriam Aouadi
    Review Article