Extended Data Fig. 4: Spatial distributions of the Metabolic Index, temperature and \({{\boldsymbol{p}}}_{{{\rm{O}}}_{2}}\) compared to occurrences of species that occupy diverse latitude and depth ranges. | Nature

Extended Data Fig. 4: Spatial distributions of the Metabolic Index, temperature and \({{\boldsymbol{p}}}_{{{\rm{O}}}_{2}}\) compared to occurrences of species that occupy diverse latitude and depth ranges.

From: Metabolic trait diversity shapes marine biogeography

Extended Data Fig. 4

ae, Species inhabit mid to high latitudes. fh, Species are found in tropical waters. Fields of Φ (colours), temperature and O2 pressure are zonally averaged over the longitudinal range of each species. a, Cyclopterus lumpus (95 °W–35 °E). b, Tautogolabrus adspersus (50–80 °W). c, Gadus morhua (75 °W–40 °E). d, Zoarces viviparus (10 °W–30 °E). e, Gadus ogac (110 °W–40 °E). f, Penaeus aztecus (40–120 °W). g, Funchalia villosa (100 °W–40 °E). h, Gennadas valens (100 °W–47 °E). Observed species occurrences are plotted (blue dots). A single lower limit of Φ bounding each species range is contoured (Φcrit; black lines) alongside isotherms of temperature (white lines; °C) and isopleths of \({p}_{{{\rm{O}}}_{2}}\) (grey lines; atm). Published upper thermal limits (CTmax) are contoured in green where available, based on maximum monthly ocean temperatures (°C). Green asterisks denote species for which CTmax occurs above all mapped maximum monthly temperatures. For most species, Φcrit more skilfully categorizes occupied habitat than either upper temperature limits or lower \({p}_{{{\rm{O}}}_{2}}\) considered individually. This skill is shown by the ratio of F1-scores of Φ relative to temperature or to \({p}_{{{\rm{O}}}_{2}}\) (in parentheses, respectively) from the full four-dimensional species distribution. For G. morhua, the monthly range of Φcrit is also mapped (dashed black lines). For G. ogac, mapped occurrences, Φ and water properties are from the Atlantic Ocean only. Land regions are shaded in grey.

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