Fig. 3: Temperature and \({{\boldsymbol{p}}}_{{{\bf{O}}}_{{\bf{2}}}}\) state-space habitat for three marine species from different phyla, ocean basins and latitude ranges. | Nature

Fig. 3: Temperature and \({{\boldsymbol{p}}}_{{{\bf{O}}}_{{\bf{2}}}}\) state-space habitat for three marine species from different phyla, ocean basins and latitude ranges.

From: Metabolic trait diversity shapes marine biogeography

Fig. 3

a, Summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus), a fish from the subtropical eastern Atlantic Ocean. b, Nautilus (Nautilus pompilius), a mollusc from the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean. c, Sea squirt (S. plicata), a cosmopolitan tunicate. The frequency of reported occurrences of each species (log10-transformed values) at each temperature (°C) and \({p}_{{{\rm{O}}}_{2}}\) level (atm) is coloured. Water conditions with no reported occurrences of the species are white, and localities with no modern ocean volume are shaded grey. Measured critical \({p}_{{{\rm{O}}}_{2}}\) levels (Pcrit; black dots) indicate the measured threshold for maintaining the resting metabolic rate in laboratory experiments (Supplementary Table 1) and are fitted to the Metabolic Index (equation (1) when Φ = 1 (bottom dashed lines). The boundaries of inhabited ocean conditions follow a Metabolic Index curve, which is elevated above the Pcrit curve by a factor Φcrit (top dashed lines) that represents the ratio of the active-to-resting metabolic rate. Contrary to observations, a species for which the range is limited by temperature or \({p}_{{{\rm{O}}}_{2}}\) alone would have a state-space occupancy delineated by a vertical or horizontal line, respectively.

Back to article page