Scientific community and society

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Great progress toward the education-related SDG targets has been made; however, global estimates of within-country distributions of education reveal gender disparities and high levels of total inequality in many parts of the world.

    • Joseph Friedman
    • , Hunter York
    •  & Emmanuela Gakidou
  • Review Article |

    The scientific, technical and ethical aspects of using CRISPR technology for therapeutic applications in humans are discussed, highlighting both opportunities and challenges of this technology to treat, cure and prevent genetic disease.

    • Jennifer A. Doudna
  • Article
    | Open Access

    High-resolution subnational mapping of child growth failure indicators for 105 low- and middle-income countries between 2000 and 2017 shows that, despite considerable progress, substantial geographical inequalities still exist in some countries.

    • Damaris K. Kinyoki
    • , Aaron E. Osgood-Zimmerman
    •  & Simon I. Hay
  • Article |

    Systematic methods for evaluating progress towards the 17 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals are developed and tested using 119 indicators at China’s national and subnational levels during 2000–2015, showing improvement overall.

    • Zhenci Xu
    • , Sophia N. Chau
    •  & Jianguo Liu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Analyses of the proportions of individuals who have completed key levels of schooling across all low- and middle-income countries from 2000 to 2017 reveal inequalities across countries as well as within populations.

    • Nicholas Graetz
    • , Lauren Woyczynski
    •  & Simon I. Hay
  • Article |

    In contrast to a previous study in which only bankers showed increased dishonesty when reminded of their profession, this study found that such reminders induced some dishonesty in bankers, although the effect was not significant, and that this effect was not unique to bankers.

    • Zoe Rahwan
    • , Erez Yoeli
    •  & Barbara Fasolo
  • Perspective |

    The authors discuss the potential for sex and gender analysis to foster scientific discovery, improve experimental efficiency and enable social equality.

    • Cara Tannenbaum
    • , Robert P. Ellis
    •  & Londa Schiebinger
  • Article |

    A model demonstrates that people who eventually succeed and those who do not may initially appear similar, but are characterized by fundamentally distinct failure dynamics in terms of the efficiency and quality of each subsequent attempt to succeed.

    • Yian Yin
    • , Yang Wang
    •  & Dashun Wang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A high-resolution, global atlas of mortality of children under five years of age between 2000 and 2017 highlights subnational geographical inequalities in the distribution, rates and absolute counts of child deaths by age.

    • Roy Burstein
    • , Nathaniel J. Henry
    •  & Simon I. Hay
  • Letter |

    Human scientists make unrepresentative chemical reagent and reaction condition choices, and machine-learning algorithms trained on human-selected experiments are less capable of successfully predicting reaction outcomes than those trained on randomly generated experiments.

    • Xiwen Jia
    • , Allyson Lynch
    •  & Joshua Schrier
  • Letter |

    In a voter game, information gerrymandering can sway the outcome of the vote towards one party, even when both parties have equal sizes and each player has the same influence; and this effect can be exaggerated by strategically placed zealots or automated bots.

    • Alexander J. Stewart
    • , Mohsen Mosleh
    •  & Joshua B. Plotkin
  • Letter |

    The dynamics of interactions between hate-orientated networks on different online platforms is characterized, and a mathematical model predicts that policing on one online platform can make matters worse and generate ‘darker’ parts of the Internet.

    • N. F. Johnson
    • , R. Leahy
    •  & S. Wuchty
  • Letter |

    A framework that includes inequality shows that extreme inequality prevents cooperation, but overall welfare is maximized when endowments and productivities are aligned such that more-productive individuals receive higher endowments.

    • Oliver P. Hauser
    • , Christian Hilbe
    •  & Martin A. Nowak
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A US national experiment showed that a short, online, self-administered growth mindset intervention can increase adolescents’ grades and advanced course-taking, and identified the types of school that were poised to benefit the most.

    • David S. Yeager
    • , Paul Hanselman
    •  & Carol S. Dweck
  • Review Article |

    A Review of advances in memory-editing techniques in humans suggests that these techniques are advancing beyond science fiction and could hold promise for translation into clinical practice.

    • Elizabeth A. Phelps
    •  & Stefan G. Hofmann
  • Letter |

    Proteins designed de novo by players of the online protein-folding game Foldit can be expressed in Escherichia coli and adopt the designed structure in solution.

    • Brian Koepnick
    • , Jeff Flatten
    •  & David Baker
  • Perspective |

    Three years of investigation by a multi-disciplinary team into claims of ‘cold fusion’ found no evidence that the phenomenon exists, but identified a parameter space potentially worthy of further exploration.

    • Curtis P. Berlinguette
    • , Yet-Ming Chiang
    •  & Matthew D. Trevithick
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fine-scale estimates of the prevalence of HIV in adults across sub-Saharan Africa reveal substantial within-country variation and local differences in both the direction and rate of change in the prevalence of HIV between 2000 and 2017.

    • Laura Dwyer-Lindgren
    • , Michael A. Cork
    •  & Simon I. Hay
  • Review Article |

    Understanding the behaviour of the machines powered by artificial intelligence that increasingly mediate our social, cultural, economic and political interactions is essential to our ability to control the actions of these intelligent machines, reap their benefits and minimize their harms.

    • Iyad Rahwan
    • , Manuel Cebrian
    •  & Michael Wellman
  • Letter
    | Open Access

    The prevalence of improved housing (with improved drinking water and sanitation, sufficient living area and durable construction) in urban and rural sub-Saharan Africa doubled between 2000 and 2015.

    • Lucy S. Tusting
    • , Donal Bisanzio
    •  & Samir Bhatt
  • Letter |

    Analyses of the output produced by large versus small teams of researchers and innovators demonstrate that their work differs systematically in the extent to which it disrupts or develops existing science and technology.

    • Lingfei Wu
    • , Dashun Wang
    •  & James A. Evans
  • Perspective |

    This Perspective discusses developments in LED-based solid-state lighting for physiological and agricultural applications, and the anticipated benefits in terms of health and productivity.

    • P. M. Pattison
    • , J. Y. Tsao
    •  & B. Bugbee
  • Article |

    Responses from more than two million people to an internet-based survey of attitudes towards moral dilemmas that might be faced by autonomous vehicles shed light on similarities and variations in ethical preferences among different populations.

    • Edmond Awad
    • , Sohan Dsouza
    •  & Iyad Rahwan
  • Letter |

    Satellite data for the period 1982–2016 reveal changes in land use and land cover at global and regional scales that reflect patterns of land change indicative of a human-dominated Earth system.

    • Xiao-Peng Song
    • , Matthew C. Hansen
    •  & John R. Townshend
  • Letter |

    The career trajectories of around 30,000 artists, film directors and scientists show that individuals in each domain have ‘hot streaks’ during which their works have increased impact, despite showing no increase in productivity.

    • Lu Liu
    • , Yang Wang
    •  & Dashun Wang
  • Letter |

    Phylogenies reconstructed using 12 hepatitis B virus genomes, which were recovered from ancient human genome data, reveal a complex history of hepatitis B evolution that is not evident when using only modern samples.

    • Barbara Mühlemann
    • , Terry C. Jones
    •  & Eske Willerslev
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Local-level analyses show that, despite marked progress in educational attainment from 2000 to 2015 across Africa, substantial differences persist between locations and sexes that have widened in many countries.

    • Nicholas Graetz
    • , Joseph Friedman
    •  & Simon I. Hay
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Geospatial estimates of child growth failure in Africa provide a baseline for measuring progress and a precision public health platform to target interventions to those populations with the greatest need.

    • Aaron Osgood-Zimmerman
    • , Anoushka I. Millear
    •  & Simon I. Hay
  • Perspective |

    The recognition of adolescence as a distinctive period for biological embedding of culture, and mass education, are features of the globalization of cultures that are driven by transformations in labour, livelihood and lifestyle.

    • Carol M. Worthman
    •  & Kathy Trang
  • Letter |

    Empirical two-part models describe the relationship between conservation spending, human development pressures and biodiversity loss and can inform sustainable development strategies by predicting the effects of financing decisions on future biodiversity losses.

    • Anthony Waldron
    • , Daniel C. Miller
    •  & John L. Gittleman
  • Letter |

    New genome-wide data for ancient, Bronze Age individuals, including Minoans, Mycenaeans, and southwestern Anatolians, show that Minoans and Mycenaeans were genetically very similar yet distinct, supporting the idea of continuity but not isolation in the history of populations of the Aegean.

    • Iosif Lazaridis
    • , Alissa Mittnik
    •  & George Stamatoyannopoulos