• Article |

    A rare population of acinar cells expressing telomerase reverse transcriptase renew the acinar cell compartment during homeostasis, and are potential sources of premalignant cells in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

    • Patrick Neuhöfer
    • , Caitlin M. Roake
    •  & Steven E. Artandi
  • Article |

    The rate of scale regeneration in zebrafish is controlled by the frequency of rhythmic travelling waves of Erk activity, which are broadcast from a central source to induce ring-like patterns of osteoblast tissue growth.

    • Alessandro De Simone
    • , Maya N. Evanitsky
    •  & Stefano Di Talia
  • Article |

    Cells that populate scar tissue in mammalian skin migrate to wounds as prefabricated matrix from the subcutaneous fascia, including embedded blood vessels, macrophages and peripheral nerves.

    • Donovan Correa-Gallegos
    • , Dongsheng Jiang
    •  & Yuval Rinkevich
  • Letter |

    There are no new oligodendrocytes in potentially remyelinated multiple sclerosis shadow plaques, although oligodendrocyte generation is increased in the normal appearing white matter of patients with aggressive disease, informing the development of new therapies.

    • Maggie S. Y. Yeung
    • , Mehdi Djelloul
    •  & Jonas Frisén
  • Article |

    Cytoplasmic, amyloid-like oligomeric assemblies that contain TDP-43 are increased in damaged tissues with elevated regeneration, thereby enhancing the possibility of amyloid fibre formation and/or aggregation of TDP-43 in disease.

    • Thomas O. Vogler
    • , Joshua R. Wheeler
    •  & Roy Parker
  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • Jop H. van Berlo
    • , Onur Kanisicak
    •  & Jeffery D. Molkentin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sequencing and assembly of the 32-Gb genome of the Mexican axolotl reveals that it lacks the developmental gene Pax3, which is essential in other vertebrates; the genome sequence could improve our understanding of the evolution of the axolotl’s remarkable regenerative capabilities.

    • Sergej Nowoshilow
    • , Siegfried Schloissnig
    •  & Eugene W. Myers
  • Letter |

    Intravital imaging reveals unanticipated plasticity of adult skin epithelium in mice when faced with mutational or non-mutational insults, and elucidates the dynamic cellular behaviours used for its return to a homeostatic state.

    • Samara Brown
    • , Cristiana M. Pineda
    •  & Valentina Greco
  • Article |

    During emergency myelopoiesis in mice, clusters of self-renewing granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (GMP) are transiently formed in the bone marrow cavity to produce a burst of myeloid cells; in leukaemia, GMP clusters persist and constantly generate myeloid leukaemia cells.

    • Aurélie Hérault
    • , Mikhail Binnewies
    •  & Emmanuelle Passegué
  • Article |

    The authors inject mouse pluripotent stem cells into pancreatogenesis-disabled rat blastocysts and thereby generate rats with mouse pancreata from which the islets, when transplanted into mice, can provide a long-term cure for symptoms of diabetes, without continuous immunosuppression.

    • Tomoyuki Yamaguchi
    • , Hideyuki Sato
    •  & Hiromitsu Nakauchi
  • Article |

    An injury-dependent enhancer element is identified that activates gene expression in regenerating zebrafish tissues and can be engineered into DNA constructs that increase tissue regenerative capacity; the element is also active in injured mouse tissue.

    • Junsu Kang
    • , Jianxin Hu
    •  & Kenneth D. Poss
  • Letter |

    The salamander, or axolotl, is well known to be able to regenerate missing body parts, but the signals that drive the initial proliferative response were unclear; now, a secreted protein has been identified that induces the initial cell cycle response after injury.

    • Takuji Sugiura
    • , Heng Wang
    •  & Elly M. Tanaka
  • Letter |

    A differentiation protocol to obtain enteric nervous system (ENS) progenitors and a range of neurons from human pluripotent stem cells is developed; the cells can migrate and graft to the colon of a chick embryo and an adult mouse colon, including in a mouse model of Hirschsprung disease, in which a functional rescue is observed.

    • Faranak Fattahi
    • , Julius A Steinbeck
    •  & Lorenz Studer
  • Letter |

    Lineage-tracing experiments identify a rare, undifferentiated population of quiescent cells in the mouse distal lung that are activated through a Notch signalling pathway to repair the epithelium after bleomycin- or influenza-mediated injury; inappropriate Notch signalling may be a major contributor to failed regeneration within the lungs of patients with chronic lung disease.

    • Andrew E. Vaughan
    • , Alexis N. Brumwell
    •  & Harold A. Chapman
  • Letter |

    An investigation of the influence of age on the generation of insulin-producing cells after β-cell loss in mice reveals that, whereas α-cells can reprogram to produce insulin from puberty to adulthood, efficient reconstitution in the very young is through δ-cell reprogramming, leading to complete diabetes recovery.

    • Simona Chera
    • , Delphine Baronnier
    •  & Pedro L. Herrera
  • Letter |

    Regeneration of the heart muscle after myocardial infarction with cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells is demonstrated in non-human primates, with the grafts showing evidence of electromechanical coupling, although they were also associated with non-fatal arrhythmias.

    • James J. H. Chong
    • , Xiulan Yang
    •  & Charles E. Murry
  • Letter |

    More than a century ago, Thomas Hunt Morgan attempted to explain the extraordinary regenerative ability of planarians such as Dugesia japonica, which can regenerate a complete individual even from a tail fragment, by proposing that two opposing morphogenetic gradients along the anterior–posterior axis are required for regeneration; here ERK and β-catenin signalling are shown to form these gradients.

    • Yoshihiko Umesono
    • , Junichi Tasaki
    •  & Kiyokazu Agata
  • Letter |

    Although the capacity for tissue regeneration of planarians is exceptional, planarians with more limited regenerative capacities are known; this study of Procotyla fluviatilis, a planarian with restricted ability to replace missing tissues, shows that Wnt signalling is aberrantly regulated in regeneration-deficient tissues and that downregulation of Wnt signalling in these regions restores regenerative abilities, revealing that manipulating a single signalling pathway can reverse the evolutionary loss of regenerative potential.

    • James M. Sikes
    •  & Phillip A. Newmark
  • Letter |

    Nail stem cells (NSCs) reside in the proximal nail matrix, and early nail progenitors undergo Wnt-dependent differentiation into the nail; after amputation, Wnt activation is required for nail and digit regeneration, and amputations proximal to the Wnt-active nail progenitors fail to regenerate, but β-catenin stabilization in the NSC region induces regeneration.

    • Makoto Takeo
    • , Wei Chin Chou
    •  & Mayumi Ito
  • Article |

    The human heart regenerates poorly, causing insufficient healing after injury; here, microRNAs screened for the ability to induce cardiomyocyte proliferation are shown to stimulate cardiac regeneration and almost complete recovery of the heart after infarction.

    • Ana Eulalio
    • , Miguel Mano
    •  & Mauro Giacca
  • Letter |

    African spiny mice (Acomys) are shown to be capable of regenerating hair follicles, adipose tissue and cartilage, and they can heal deep lesions of skin, with little scarring, suggesting that these mice could prove useful as a model system for studying tissue regeneration in mammals.

    • Ashley W. Seifert
    • , Stephen G. Kiama
    •  & Malcolm Maden
  • Letter |

    A non-invasive method is used to study and manipulate hair-follicle regeneration over time in live mice, and shows that hair growth involves spatially regulated cell divisions, cellular reorganization and migration of epithelial cells, and that the mesenchyme is required for hair growth.

    • Panteleimon Rompolas
    • , Elizabeth R. Deschene
    •  & Valentina Greco
  • Letter |

    The maintenance and regeneration of the epithelium of the adult bladder is poorly understood yet it is a clinically relevant process during urinary tract infections and bladder cancer. This study provides insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the regenerative response to injury within the mammalian urinary bladder. Upon injury by bacterial infection or chemical agents, a Shh and Wnt signalling feedback circuit between basal cells of the urothelium and the stromal cells that underlie them leads to regenerative proliferation of the bladder epithelia.

    • Kunyoo Shin
    • , John Lee
    •  & Philip A. Beachy
  • Letter |

    Here it is shown that reactivation of endogenous telomerase activity in mice extends telomeres, reduces DNA damage signalling, allows resumption of proliferation in quiescent cultures, and eliminates degenerative phenotypes across multiple organs including testes, spleens and intestines. Accumulating evidence implicating telomere damage as a driver of age-associated organ decline and disease and the reversal of damage observed here support the development of regenerative strategies designed to restore telomere integrity.

    • Mariela Jaskelioff
    • , Florian L. Muller
    •  & Ronald A. DePinho
  • Letter |

    These authors describe a molecular pathway by which endothelial cells sustain liver regeneration after surgical resection. Activation of vascular endothelial growth factor-A receptor-2 in a defined subpopulation of liver endothelial cells leads to the upregulation of the endothelial-specific transcription factor Id1, which in turn induces Wnt2 and hepatocyte growth factor, which are secreted from the endothelial cells and trigger hepatocyte proliferation.

    • Bi-Sen Ding
    • , Daniel J. Nolan
    •  & Shahin Rafii