Optical techniques

  • Article |

    A combination of multiview imaging, structured illumination, reconstruction algorithms and deep-learning predictions realizes spatial- and temporal-resolution improvements in fluorescence microscopy to produce super-resolution images from diffraction-limited input images.

    • Yicong Wu
    • , Xiaofei Han
    •  & Hari Shroff
  • Article |

    The dynamics of ions within a working lithium-ion battery are examined using optical interferometric scattering microscopy, which allows ion transport to be related to phase transitions and microstructural features.

    • Alice J. Merryweather
    • , Christoph Schnedermann
    •  & Akshay Rao
  • Article |

    A quantum microscope obtains signal-to-noise beyond the photodamage limits of conventional microscopy, revealing biological structures within cells that would not otherwise be resolved.

    • Catxere A. Casacio
    • , Lars S. Madsen
    •  & Warwick P. Bowen
  • Article |

    A compact, high-performance silicon photonics-based light detection and ranging system for three-dimensional imaging is developed that should be amenable to low-cost mass manufacturing

    • Christopher Rogers
    • , Alexander Y. Piggott
    •  & Remus Nicolaescu
  • Article |

    The strong interaction of coherent free electrons with a photonic-crystal cavity enables the measurement of the lifetimes of the cavity modes and provides a technique for multidimensional near-field imaging and spectroscopy.

    • Kangpeng Wang
    • , Raphael Dahan
    •  & Ido Kaminer
  • Article |

    A massively parallel coherent light detection and ranging (lidar) scheme using a soliton microcomb—a light source that emits a wide spectrum of sharp lines with equally spaced frequencies—is described.

    • Johann Riemensberger
    • , Anton Lukashchuk
    •  & Tobias J. Kippenberg
  • Article |

    A vibrational spectroscopy technique that measures the electric field emitted from organic molecules following infrared illumination allows their molecular fingerprints to be separated from the excitation background, even in complex biological samples.

    • Ioachim Pupeza
    • , Marinus Huber
    •  & Ferenc Krausz
  • Letter |

    A faint penumbra in a photograph of a diffuse surface enables recovery of the position of the object creating the penumbra and an image of the scene behind it.

    • Charles Saunders
    • , John Murray-Bruce
    •  & Vivek K Goyal
  • Article |

    The displacement of a mechanical resonator is measured to within 35% of the Heisenberg uncertainty limit, enabling feedback cooling to the quantum ground state, nine decibels below the quantum-backaction limit.

    • Massimiliano Rossi
    • , David Mason
    •  & Albert Schliesser
  • Letter |

    Using optical mapping and 3D ultrasound, the dynamics and interactions between electrical and mechanical phase singularities were analysed by simultaneously measuring the membrane potential, intracellular calcium concentration and mechanical contractions of the heart during normal rhythm and fibrillation.

    • J. Christoph
    • , M. Chebbok
    •  & S. Luther
  • Letter |

    The response of a ternary, parity–time-symmetric system that exhibits a third-order exceptional point increases as a function of the cube-root of induced perturbations.

    • Hossein Hodaei
    • , Absar U. Hassan
    •  & Mercedeh Khajavikhan
  • Letter |

    Stimulated Raman scattering under electronic pre-resonance conditions, combined with a new palette of probes, enables super-multiplex imaging of molecular targets in living cells with very high vibrational selectivity and sensitivity.

    • Lu Wei
    • , Zhixing Chen
    •  & Wei Min
  • Letter |

    Hsp70 binds unfolded protein segments in its groove, but can also bind and stabilize folded protein structures, owing to its moveable lid, with ATP hydrolysis and co-chaperones allowing control of these contrasting effects.

    • Alireza Mashaghi
    • , Sergey Bezrukavnikov
    •  & Sander J. Tans
  • Letter |

    Combining cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy with buffer gas cooling enables rapid collection of well-resolved infrared spectra for molecules such as nitromethane, naphthalene and adamantane, confirming the value of the combined approach for studying much larger and more complex molecules than have been probed so far.

    • Ben Spaun
    • , P. Bryan Changala
    •  & Jun Ye
  • Letter |

    A small-angle X-ray scattering computed tomography method that reduces the amount of data that needs to be collected and analysed to reconstruct the three-dimensional scattering distribution in reciprocal space of a three-dimensional sample in real space is demonstrated by measuring the orientation of collagen fibres within a human tooth.

    • Florian Schaff
    • , Martin Bech
    •  & Franz Pfeiffer
  • Letter |

    A technique based on compressed imaging with a streak camera is reported that can videotape transient events in two dimensions with temporal resolution down to tens of picoseconds, and its usefulness is demonstrated using single laser shots applied to a variety of physical phenomena.

    • Liang Gao
    • , Jinyang Liang
    •  & Lihong V. Wang
  • Letter |

    Here, using two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy, the local oxygen tension in the bone marrow of live mice is found to be quite low, with spatiotemporal variations depending on the blood vessel type, distance to the endosteum, and changes in cellularity after stress.

    • Joel A. Spencer
    • , Francesca Ferraro
    •  & Charles P. Lin
  • Letter |

    A new multiplex technique of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectro-imaging with two laser frequency combs is shown to record molecular spectra of broad bandwidth on a microsecond scale.

    • Takuro Ideguchi
    • , Simon Holzner
    •  & Theodor W. Hänsch
  • Letter |

    The image of a fluorescent object hidden behind an opaque layer can be retrieved non-invasively by exploiting the correlation properties of the speckle pattern produced by illuminating the object through the layer using laser light.

    • Jacopo Bertolotti
    • , Elbert G. van Putten
    •  & Allard P. Mosk
  • Letter |

    Scanning probe techniques such as atomic force microscopy can be readily harnessed to prepare nanoscale structures with exquisite resolution, but are not in general suited for high-throughput patterning. Techniques based on contact printing, on the other hand, offer high throughput over large areas, but can't compete on resolution. Now, an approach is described that offers the best of both worlds: by attaching an array of hard, scanning-probe-like silicon tips to a flexible elastomeric substrate (similar to those used in contact printing), it is possible to rapidly create arbitrary patterns with sub-50-nm resolution over centimetre-scale areas.

    • Wooyoung Shim
    • , Adam B. Braunschweig
    •  & Chad A. Mirkin
  • Letter |

    Until now, the most distant spectroscopically confirmed galaxies known in the Universe were at redshifts of z = 8.2 and z = 6.96. It is now reported that the galaxy UDFy-38135539 is at a redshift of z = 8.5549 ± 0.0002. The finding has implications for our understanding of the timing, location and nature of the sources responsible for reionization of the Universe after the Big Bang.

    • M. D. Lehnert
    • , N. P. H. Nesvadba
    •  & S. Basa