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Electron scattering measurements are shown to reproduce only qualitatively state-of-the-art lepton–nucleus energy reconstruction models, indicating that improvements to these particle-interaction models are required to ensure the accuracy of future high-precision neutrino oscillation experiments.
Quark–antiquark annihilation measurements provide a precise determination of the ratio of down and up antiquarks within protons as a function of momentum, which confirms the asymmetry between the abundance of down and up antiquarks.
Correlations in momentum space between hadrons created by ultrarelativistic proton–proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider provide insights into the strong interaction, particularly the short-range dynamics of hyperons—baryons that contain strange quarks.
High-precision cross-sections of the nuclear reaction that burns deuterium to create helium-3 are used to produce theoretical estimates of the primordial baryon density that are in agreement with recent astronomical observations.
A mechanistic explanation for the origin of the neutron dripline shows that nuclei accommodate the addition of neutrons by becoming increasingly ellipsoidal, up to a maximum number of neutrons, reconciling theory and experiments.
Ionizing radiation from environmental radioactivity and cosmic rays increases the density of broken Cooper pairs in superconducting qubits, reducing their coherence times, but can be partially mitigated by lead shielding.
Measurements of low-energy electronic states of radium monofluoride validate predictions of the use of this short-lived radioactive molecule in exploring fundamental physics and provide evidence of its suitability for laser cooling.
High-energy electron scattering that can isolate pairs of nucleons in high-momentum configurations reveals a transition to spin-independent scalar forces at small separation distances, supporting the use of point-like nucleon models to describe dense nuclear systems.
Ionization cooling, a technique that delivers high-brightness muon beams for the study of phenomena at energy scales beyond those of the Large Hadron Collider, is demonstrated by the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment.
A magnetic-spectrometer-free method for electron–proton scattering data reveals a proton charge radius 2.7 standard deviations smaller than the currently accepted value from electron–proton scattering, yet consistent with other recent experiments.
Reanalysis of the spectra associated with the merger of two neutron stars identifies strontium, spectroscopically establishing the origin of the heavy elements created by rapid neutron capture and proving that neutron stars comprise neutron-rich matter.
The transition energy of the first excited state of 229Th to the ground state is determined through the measurement of internal conversion electrons to correspond to a wavelength of 149.7 ± 3.1 nanometres.
Three years of investigation by a multi-disciplinary team into claims of ‘cold fusion’ found no evidence that the phenomenon exists, but identified a parameter space potentially worthy of further exploration.
Single barium atoms trapped in a solid xenon matrix can be imaged and counted by scanning with a focused laser, providing a possible tagging technique for the neutrinoless-double-β-decay experiment nEXO.
Simultaneous high-precision measurements of the EMC effect and short-range correlated abundances for several nuclei reveal a universal modification of the structure of nucleons in short-range correlated neutron–proton pairs.
Quantum many-body calculations of superfluid fission dynamics reveal that heavy fragments from asymmetric fission of actinides are associated with considerable octupole (pear-shaped) deformation acquired on the way to fission.
By analysing particle production in high-energy nuclear collisions, the phase boundary of strongly interacting matter is located and the phase structure of quantum chromodynamics is elucidated, implying quark–hadron duality.
Electron-scattering experiments reveal that the fraction of high-momentum protons in medium-to-heavy nuclei increases considerably with neutron excess, whereas that of high-momentum neutrons decreases slightly, in contrast to shell-model predictions.
Lattice quantum chromodynamics and a method inspired by the Feynman–Hellmann theorem are used to make a theoretical determination of the nucleon axial coupling with a precision of one per cent, giving the value 1.271 ± 0.013.
The measurement of an alignment between the angular momentum of a non-central collision between heavy ions and the spin of emitted particles reveals that the fluid produced in the collision is extremely vortical.
If neutrinos are their own antiparticles, neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge should occur; a new lower-limit half-life of 5 × 1025 years for this process has now been determined under background-free conditions.
Resonance ionization spectroscopy of nobelium (atomic number 102) reveals its ground-state transition and an upper limit for its ionization potential, paving the way to characterizing even heavier elements via optical spectroscopy.
A new imaging and spectroscopy approach combines the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to manipulate nuclear spins with the high sensitivity of γ-ray detection, enabling a greatly reduced number of nuclei to be used compared to conventional NMR signal detection.
Direct detection of the 229Th nuclear clock transition has been achieved, placing direct constraints on transition energy and half-life; these results are a step towards a nuclear clock, nuclear quantum optics and a nuclear laser.
Analysis of deep-ocean archives reveals that a few per cent of fresh 60Fe has been captured in interstellar dust and deposited in Earth’s crust, indicating that many supernova events occurred over the past ten million years within a distance of up to 100 parsecs from Earth.
An ab initio calculation of alpha–alpha scattering is described for which the number of computational operations scales approximately quadratically with particle number and which uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations and lattice effective field theory, combined with the adiabatic projection method to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system.
The interaction between antiprotons, produced by colliding high-energy gold ions, is shown to be attractive, and two important parameters of this interaction are measured, namely the scattering length and the effective range.
The exotic double-gamma nuclear decay has been observed in cases where the usual single-gamma decay is forbidden, but now a double-gamma decay of excited 137Ba is reported that is in competition with a single-gamma decay.
The CPT theorem (the assumption that physical laws are invariant under simultaneous charge conjugation, parity transformation and time reversal) is central to the standard model of particle physics; here the charge-to-mass ratio of the antiproton is compared to that of the proton, with a precision of 69 parts per trillion, and the result supports the CPT theorem at the atto-electronvolt scale.