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Imaging studies show that topological protection in the quantum Hall state in graphene is undermined by edge reconstruction with a dissipation mechanism that comprises two distinct and spatially separated processes—work generation and entropy generation.
Progress in integrating atomically thin two-dimensional materials with silicon-based technology is reviewed, together with the associated opportunities and challenges, and a roadmap for future applications is presented.
Multivalent anions are found to be capable of electron-doping polymer semiconductors to realize conductive films with very low work functions, which enable efficient electron injection into materials with low electron affinity.
Transmission of single-spin and entangled quantum states without the physical displacement of electrons is demonstrated in a quadruple quantum dot array using the Heisenberg exchange interaction and coherent SWAP gates.
A probabilistic computer utilizing probabilistic bits, or p-bits, is implemented with stochastic nanomagnetic devices in a neural-network-inspired electrical circuit operating at room temperature and demonstrates integer factorization up to 945.
The limitations of conventional chemical doping of polymeric semiconductors can be overcome by adding a second ionic species into the system, leading to enhanced doping, electrical conductivity and stability.
Cryo-electron microscopy and high-speed atomic force microscopy reveal that PIEZO1 can reversibly deform its shape towards a planar structure, which may explain how the PIEZO1 channel is gated in response to mechanical stimulation.
Titration gas chromatography is developed as an analytical method of distinguishing between lithium metal and lithium compounds within a cycled battery and assessing the amount of unreacted metallic lithium available.
Investigation of a free-standing graphene monolayer using a technique based on transmission electron microscopy allows identification of atomic vibrations characteristic of the bulk or the edge of the sample.
The thermal conductance of single-molecule junctions is measured using picowatt-resolution calorimetric scanning probes and is found to be nearly independent of the length of the alkanedithiol molecules studied.
A fast, high-fidelity two-qubit exchange gate between phosphorus donor electron spin qubits in silicon is demonstrated by creating a tunable exchange interaction between two electrons bound to phosphorus atom qubits.
By varying the vertical displacement field in a trilayer graphene and hexagonal boron nitride moiré superlattice, transitions can be observed from the superconducting phase to Mott insulator and metallic phases.
Majorana bound states are created in a two-dimensional architecture by confining Majorana channels within a planar Josephson junction, using the phase difference across the junction and an in-plane magnetic field.
A tunable interlayer twist that evolves naturally during synthesis of van der Waals nanowires made from layered crystals of germanium sulfide could produce new electronic structure and correlation phenomena.
Phosphorene nanoribbons are produced in liquids through the intercalation of black phosphorous crystals with lithium ions, enabling the search for predicted exotic states and applications of these nanoribbons.
Ultraclean van der Waals bonds between gold-capped indium and a monolayer of the two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide molybdenum disulfide show desirably low contact resistance at the interface, enabling high-performance field-effect transistors.
A set of 355 self-assembling DNA ‘tiles’ can be reprogrammed to implement many different computer algorithms—including sorting, palindrome testing and divisibility by three—suggesting that molecular self-assembly could be a reliable algorithmic component in programmable chemical systems.
Using a thin-film lithium niobate photonic platform, an electro-optic frequency comb generator is realized that is capable of producing wide and stable spectra, spanning more frequencies than the entire telecommunications L-band.
Pressure-driven transport of aqueous salts through ångström-scale channels created from two-dimensional materials shows a transistor-like effect in which applying a tiny bias voltage can increase transport by up to 20 times.
The ‘negative luminescence’ of a reverse-biased photodiode is harnessed to draw thermal energy from a nearby solid object, thereby realizing photonic cooling without the use of coherent laser radiation.
Integration of an ultrafast flexible rectifier made from a two-dimensional material with a flexible antenna achieves wireless energy harvesting of Wi-Fi radiation, which could power future flexible electronic systems.
Topological nanoelectromechanical metamaterials are realized at the micrometre scale, using silicon nitride nanomembranes, opening the way for on-chip integrated acoustic components in high-frequency signal-processing applications.
A scalable spintronic device operating via spin–orbit transduction and magnetoelectric switching and using advanced quantum materials shows non-volatility and improved performance and energy efficiency compared with CMOS devices.
The phenomenon of ultralow friction between sliding incommensurate crystal surfaces—structural superlubricity—is examined, and the challenges and opportunities involved in its extension to the macroscale are assessed.
Cooperative quantum effects in superlattices of quantum dots made of caesium lead halide perovskite give rise to superfluorescence, with the individual emitters interacting coherently to give intense bursts of light.
The displacement of a mechanical resonator is measured to within 35% of the Heisenberg uncertainty limit, enabling feedback cooling to the quantum ground state, nine decibels below the quantum-backaction limit.
A fundamental electronic noise—beyond electronic thermal noise and voltage-activated shot noise—that is generated by temperature differences across nanoscale conductors is demonstrated, with possible implications for thermometry and electronics.
The formation of submicrometre-scale structure in perovskite light-emitting diodes can raise their external quantum efficiency beyond 20%, suggesting the possibility of both high efficiency and high brightness.
By intercalating large ammonium molecules to exfoliate MoS2 with preservation of the 2H-phase, highly uniform solutionprocessable 2D semiconductor nanosheets are obtained for the scalable fabrication of large-area thin-film electronics.
Tunable spin transport over long distances is demonstrated through the antiferromagnetic insulator haematite, paving the way to the development of spin-logic devices based on antiferromagnetic insulators.