Lasers, LEDs and light sources

  • Article |

    A large electronic display textile that is flexible, breathable and withstands repeated machine-washing is integrated with a keyboard and power supply to create a wearable, durable communication tool.

    • Xiang Shi
    • , Yong Zuo
    •  & Huisheng Peng
  • Article |

    The binding of multidentate ligands to the surface of lead halide perovskite nanocrystals suppresses the formation of surface defects that result in halide segregation, yielding materials with efficient and colour-stable red emission.

    • Yasser Hassan
    • , Jong Hyun Park
    •  & Henry J. Snaith
  • Article |

    Cadmium-free blue quantum dot light-emitting diodes are constructed with a quantum yield of unity, an efficiency at the theoretical limit, high brightness and long operational lifetime.

    • Taehyung Kim
    • , Kwang-Hee Kim
    •  & Eunjoo Jang
  • Article |

    Wave destabilization is demonstrated in semiconductor ring lasers operating at low pumping levels, where ultrafast gain recovery leads to the emergence of a frequency comb regime owing to phase turbulence.

    • Marco Piccardo
    • , Benedikt Schwarz
    •  & Federico Capasso
  • Article |

    A method of engineering efficient and stable InP/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) has improved their performance to the level of state-of-the-art cadmium-containing QD-LEDs, removing the problem of the toxicity of cadmium in large-panel displays.

    • Yu-Ho Won
    • , Oul Cho
    •  & Eunjoo Jang
  • Letter |

    Room-temperature modulation frequencies exceeding 200 GHz are demonstrated in birefringent semiconductor spin-lasers by coupling the spin of the charge carriers to the light polarization.

    • Markus Lindemann
    • , Gaofeng Xu
    •  & Nils C. Gerhardt
  • Letter |

    Organic light-emitting devices containing radical emitters can achieve an efficiency of 27 per cent at deep-red and infrared wavelengths based on the excitation of spin doublets, rather than singlet or triplet states.

    • Xin Ai
    • , Emrys W. Evans
    •  & Feng Li
  • Perspective |

    This Perspective discusses developments in LED-based solid-state lighting for physiological and agricultural applications, and the anticipated benefits in terms of health and productivity.

    • P. M. Pattison
    • , J. Y. Tsao
    •  & B. Bugbee
  • Letter |

    Integrating an optical Kerr frequency comb source with an electronically excited laser pump produces a battery-powered comb generator that does not require external lasers, moveable optics or laboratory set-ups.

    • Brian Stern
    • , Xingchen Ji
    •  & Michal Lipson
  • Letter |

    A scalable thermal drawing process is used to integrate light-emitting and photodetecting diodes into textile-ready polymer fibres, which can be woven into fabrics with possible optical communication and health monitoring applications.

    • Michael Rein
    • , Valentine Dominique Favrod
    •  & Yoel Fink
  • Letter |

    An optical-frequency synthesizer based on stabilized frequency combs has been developed utilizing chip-scale devices as key components, in a move towards using integrated photonics technology for ultrafast science and metrology.

    • Daryl T. Spencer
    • , Tara Drake
    •  & Scott B. Papp
  • Letter |

    A blend of two organic molecules excited by a simple LED light source can release the stored excitation energy slowly as ‘long persistent luminescence’ over periods of up to an hour.

    • Ryota Kabe
    •  & Chihaya Adachi
  • Letter |

    Ablation cooling is demonstrated as an effective means of removing material using successive bursts of laser pulses with short intraburst delay times; the technique allows the overall pulse energy to be decreased, overcoming negative thermal effects during the ablation process.

    • Can Kerse
    • , Hamit Kalaycıoğlu
    •  & Fatih Ömer Ilday
  • Letter |

    A miniature laser is reported that uses two-dimensional tungsten diselenide as the active medium, which is placed on a photonic crystal membrane that acts as the laser cavity; the laser emits visible light, with an ultralow pump threshold.

    • Sanfeng Wu
    • , Sonia Buckley
    •  & Xiaodong Xu
  • Letter |

    The insertion of an insulating layer into a multilayer light-emitting diode (LED) based on quantum dots and produced by depositing the layers from solution increases the performance of the LEDs to levels comparable to those of state-of-the-art organic LEDs produced by vacuum deposition, while retaining the advantages of solution processing.

    • Xingliang Dai
    • , Zhenxing Zhang
    •  & Xiaogang Peng
  • Letter |

    An electrically pumped polariton laser is constructed using a quantum well microcavity, and its polaritonic nature is demonstrated unambiguously by using a magnetic field to probe the part-light, part-matter character of the system.

    • Christian Schneider
    • , Arash Rahimi-Iman
    •  & Sven Höfling
  • Letter |

    A class of metal-free organic electroluminescent molecules is designed in which both singlet and triplet excitons contribute to light emission, leading to an intrinsic fluorescence efficiency greater than 90 per cent and an external electroluminescence efficiency comparable to that achieved in high-efficiency phosphorescence-based organic light-emitting diodes.

    • Hiroki Uoyama
    • , Kenichi Goushi
    •  & Chihaya Adachi
  • Letter |

    A broadband, compact, all-electrically driven mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser widens the scope of application of combs in this frequency range beyond that of sources which depend on a chain of optical components.

    • Andreas Hugi
    • , Gustavo Villares
    •  & Jérôme Faist
  • Letter |

    A free-electron laser is used to power a pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer at 240 GHz, demonstrating a range of experimental possibilities such as the manipulation of spin-1/2 systems with 6-ns pulses and the measurement of ultrashort decoherence times.

    • S. Takahashi
    • , L.-C. Brunel
    •  & M. S. Sherwin
  • Letter |

    Using an organic molecular crystal as gain medium allows a maser to be operated in pulsed mode in air, at room temperature and in the terrestrial magnetic field, so avoiding many of the obstacles that have previously hindered the application of masers.

    • Mark Oxborrow
    • , Jonathan D. Breeze
    •  & Neil M. Alford
  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • Seungchul Kim
    • , Jonghan Jin
    •  & Seung-Woo Kim
  • Letter |

    A superradiant laser with less than one intracavity photon is shown to synchronize its lasing medium spontaneously and simultaneously isolate it from the environment, producing emitted light with a linewidth ten thousand times smaller than the quantum limit for non-superradiant optical lasers.

    • Justin G. Bohnet
    • , Zilong Chen
    •  & James K. Thompson
  • Letter |

    A new family of resonators for nanoscale lasers is described that allows the size of the laser cavity to be scaled down without increasing the threshold power required to drive lasing.

    • M. Khajavikhan
    • , A. Simic
    •  & Y. Fainman
  • Letter |

    The start-up of the new femtosecond hard X-ray laser facility in Stanford, the Linac Coherent Light Source, has brought high expectations for a new era for biological imaging. The intense, ultrashort X-ray pulses allow diffraction imaging of small structures before radiation damage occurs. This new capability is tested for the problem of structure determination from nanocrystals of macromolecules that cannot be grown in large crystals. Over three million diffraction patterns were collected from a stream of nanocrystals of the membrane protein complex photosystem I, which allowed the assembly of a three-dimensional data set for this protein, and proves the concept of this imaging technique.

    • Henry N. Chapman
    • , Petra Fromme
    •  & John C. H. Spence
  • Letter |

    The start-up of the new femtosecond hard X-ray laser facility in Stanford, the Linac Coherent Light Source, has brought high expectations for a new era for biological imaging. The intense, ultrashort X-ray pulses allow diffraction imaging of small structures before radiation damage occurs. This new capability is tested for the problem of imaging a non-crystalline biological sample. Images of mimivirus are obtained, the largest known virus with a total diameter of about 0.75 micrometres, by injecting a beam of cooled mimivirus particles into the X-ray beam. The measurements indicate no damage during imaging and prove the concept of this imaging technique.

    • M. Marvin Seibert
    • , Tomas Ekeberg
    •  & Janos Hajdu
  • Letter |

    When an atom is excited into a Rydberg state, its electronic wavefunction can extend to several nanometres. This process can be used to induce and coherently control interactions between atoms that are far enough apart to be non-interacting in their normal states. Now, such behaviour has been realized in a solid-state context, by demonstrating coherent control of the wavefunctions of phosphorus dopant atoms in silicon.

    • P. T. Greenland
    • , S. A. Lynch
    •  & G. Aeppli
  • Letter |

    A quantum computer based on optical processes requires a source of entangled photons that can be delivered efficiently on demand. Such a source has now been developed: it involves a compact light-emitting diode with an embedded quantum dot that can be driven electrically to generate entangled photon pairs.

    • C. L. Salter
    • , R. M. Stevenson
    •  & A. J. Shields
  • Letter |

    Many technological materials are intentionally 'doped' with foreign elements to impart new and desirable properties, a classic example being the doping of semiconductors to tune their electronic behaviour. Here lanthanide doping is used to control the growth of nanocrystals, allowing for simultaneous tuning of the size, crystallographic phase and optical properties of the hybrid material.

    • Feng Wang
    • , Yu Han
    •  & Xiaogang Liu