Infectious diseases

  • Article |

    Enteric glial cells have tissue-wide immunoregulatory roles through the upregulation of IFNγ-dependent genes both at steady state and after parasite infection, promoting immune homeostasis and CXCL10-mediated tissue repair after pathogen-induced intestinal damage in mice.

    • Fränze Progatzky
    • , Michael Shapiro
    •  & Vassilis Pachnis
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A study of the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in England between September 2020 and June 2021 finds that interventions capable of containing previous variants were insufficient to stop the more transmissible Alpha and Delta variants.

    • Harald S. Vöhringer
    • , Theo Sanderson
    •  & Moritz Gerstung
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Monitoring of western chimpanzee populations in Guinea-Bissau and Côte d’Ivoire reveals the presence of rare and different genotypes of Mycobacterium leprae, suggesting greater circulation in wild animals than previously thought.

    • Kimberley J. Hockings
    • , Benjamin Mubemba
    •  & Fabian H. Leendertz
  • Article |

    A lead-optimization strategy combining porin permeation properties and biochemical potency leads to development of a new class of antibiotic based on broad inhibition of penicillin-binding proteins from Gram-negative bacteria.

    • Thomas F. Durand-Reville
    • , Alita A. Miller
    •  & Ruben A. Tommasi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Longitudinal analyses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine-elicited epitope-specific CD8+ T cell responses shows that CD8+ T cells are rapidly induced after prime vaccination and stably maintained after boost vaccination.

    • Valerie Oberhardt
    • , Hendrik Luxenburger
    •  & Maike Hofmann
  • Article |

    The human monoclonal antibody S2X259 cross-reacts with spike proteins from all clades of sarbecovirus, and provides prophylactic and therapeutic protection in vivo against parental SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants of concern.

    • M. Alejandra Tortorici
    • , Nadine Czudnochowski
    •  & Matteo Samuele Pizzuto
  • Article |

    A survey of SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibodies identifies those with activity against diverse SARS-CoV-2 variants and SARS-related coronaviruses, highlighting epitopes and features to prioritize in antibody and vaccine development.

    • Tyler N. Starr
    • , Nadine Czudnochowski
    •  & Gyorgy Snell
  • Perspective |

    This Perspective discusses possible future patterns of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the development of variants, potential changes in the patterns of spread and the implications for vaccine deployment and the potential consequences of these issues for the development of policy.

    • Amalio Telenti
    • , Ann Arvin
    •  & Herbert W. Virgin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A global network of researchers was formed to investigate the role of human genetics in SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity; this paper reports 13 genome-wide significant loci and potentially actionable mechanisms in response to infection.

    • Mari E. K. Niemi
    • , Juha Karjalainen
    •  & Chloe Donohue
  • Article |

    Two malaria vaccines comprising Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites and treatment with either pyrimethamine or chloroquine induced durable protective responses against both the African vaccine strain and a heterologous South American strain of P. falciparum.

    • Agnes Mwakingwe-Omari
    • , Sara A. Healy
    •  & Patrick E. Duffy
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Multivalent nanobodies against SARS-CoV-2 from mice engineered to produce camelid nanobodies recognize conserved epitopes that are inaccessible to human antibodies and show promise as a strategy for dealing with viral escape mutations.

    • Jianliang Xu
    • , Kai Xu
    •  & Rafael Casellas
  • Article |

    Analysis of the spread of the 20E (EU1) variant of SARS-CoV-2 through Europe suggests that international travel and insufficient containment, rather than increased transmissibility, led to a resurgence of infections.

    • Emma B. Hodcroft
    • , Moira Zuber
    •  & Richard A. Neher
  • Article |

    Rapid extracellular antigen profiling of a cohort of 194 individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 uncovers diverse autoantibody responses that affect COVID-19 disease severity, progression and clinical and immunological characteristics.

    • Eric Y. Wang
    • , Tianyang Mao
    •  & Aaron M. Ring
  • Article |

    Statistical analysis of COVID-19 transmission among users of a smartphone-based digital contact-tracing app suggests that such apps can be an effective measure for reducing disease spread.

    • Chris Wymant
    • , Luca Ferretti
    •  & Christophe Fraser
  • Article |

    Immunization of macaques with nanoparticle-conjugated receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 adjuvanted with 3M-052 and alum results in cross-neutralizing antibodies against bat coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 variants, and may provide a platform for developing pan-coronavirus vaccines.

    • Kevin O. Saunders
    • , Esther Lee
    •  & Barton F. Haynes
  • Article |

    Imaging mass cytometry of the human lung reveals the cellular composition and spatial architecture during COVID-19 and other acute injuries, enabling the characterization of lung pathophysiology from structural, immunological and clinical perspectives.

    • André F. Rendeiro
    • , Hiranmayi Ravichandran
    •  & Robert E. Schwartz
  • Article |

    The bispecific IgG1-like CoV-X2 prevents SARS-CoV-2 spike binding to ACE2, neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 and its variants of concern, protects against disease in a mouse model, whereas the parental monoclonal antibodies generate viral escape.

    • Raoul De Gasparo
    • , Mattia Pedotti
    •  & Luca Varani
  • Article |

    The anti-leprosy drug clofazimine inhibits coronavirus replication in several cell models and shows potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection in a hamster model, particularly when used in combination with remdesivir.

    • Shuofeng Yuan
    • , Xin Yin
    •  & Kwok-Yung Yuen
  • Article |

    Analysis of community-tested cases of SARS-CoV-2 indicates that the B.1.1.7 variant is not only more transmissible than pre-existing variants, but may also cause more severe illness, and is associated with a higher risk of death.

    • Nicholas G. Davies
    • , Christopher I. Jarvis
    •  & Ruth H. Keogh
  • Article |

    The SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 can be neutralized by convalescent sera or sera from vaccinated individuals, whereas the B.1.351 variant is resistant to neutralization by these sera and by several monoclonal antibodies that are in clinical use.

    • Pengfei Wang
    • , Manoj S. Nair
    •  & David D. Ho
  • Article |

    A SARS-CoV-2 variant containing a D614G substitution in the spike protein shows enhanced binding to human ACE2, increased replication in human cell cultures and a competitive advantage in animal models of infection.

    • Bin Zhou
    • , Tran Thi Nhu Thao
    •  & Martin Beer
  • Article |

    Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced respiratory failure suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infects alveolar macrophages to cause release of T cell chemoattractants, thereby inducing local inflammatory cytokine release and further T cell activation, ultimately resulting in a positive feedback loop that drives alveolar inflammation.

    • Rogan A. Grant
    • , Luisa Morales-Nebreda
    •  & Ziyou Ren
  • Article |

    Analyses of virological and surveillance data in France show that a substantial proportion of symptomatic cases of COVID-19 have remained undetected and that easily accessible and efficient testing is required to control the pandemic.

    • Giulia Pullano
    • , Laura Di Domenico
    •  & Vittoria Colizza
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Although progress in the coverage of routine measles vaccination in children in low- and middle-income countries was made during 2000–2019, many countries remain far from the goal of 80% coverage in all districts by 2019.

    • Alyssa N. Sbarra
    • , Sam Rolfe
    •  & Jonathan F. Mosser
  • Article |

    A genome-wide association study of critically ill patients with COVID-19 identifies genetic signals that relate to important host antiviral defence mechanisms and mediators of inflammatory organ damage that may be targeted by repurposing drug treatments.

    • Erola Pairo-Castineira
    • , Sara Clohisey
    •  & J. Kenneth Baillie
  • Article |

    The relative risk of COVID-19-associated death for younger individuals (under 65) is consistent across countries and can be used to robustly compare the underlying number of infections in each country.

    • Megan O’Driscoll
    • , Gabriel Ribeiro Dos Santos
    •  & Henrik Salje
  • Article |

    Viral infection of the respiratory system induces exuberant fibroblast activity, resulting in extensive remodelling of the extracellular matrix and cytokine release, which promote immune cell infiltration of the affected area at the expense of respiratory function.

    • David F. Boyd
    • , E. Kaitlynn Allen
    •  & Paul G. Thomas