• Article
    | Open Access

    A study of SARS-CoV-2 variants examining their transmission, infectivity, and potential resistance to therapies provides insights into the biology of the Delta variant and its role in the global pandemic.

    • Petra Mlcochova
    • , Steven A. Kemp
    •  & Ravindra K. Gupta
  • Article |

    Two cGAS-like receptors, cGLR1 and cGLR2, identified in Drosophila melanogaster are shown to induce antiviral immunity in response to RNA or DNA virus infections through the production of 2′3′-cGAMP and 3′2′-cGAMP.

    • Andreas Holleufer
    • , Kasper Grønbjerg Winther
    •  & Rune Hartmann
  • Article |

    Single-nucleus transcriptomes of frontal cortex and choroid plexus samples from patients with COVID-19 reveal pathological cell states that are similar to those associated with human neurodegenerative diseases and chronic brain disorders.

    • Andrew C. Yang
    • , Fabian Kern
    •  & Tony Wyss-Coray
  • Review Article |

    This Review outlines the gene and protein expression strategies used by viruses to expand the efficiency of their coding and regulatory sequences, and the implications of these mechanisms for developing antiviral agents.

    • Jessica Sook Yuin Ho
    • , Zeyu Zhu
    •  & Ivan Marazzi
  • Article |

    Lung samples collected soon after death from COVID-19 are used to provide a single-cell atlas of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the ensuing molecular changes.

    • Johannes C. Melms
    • , Jana Biermann
    •  & Benjamin Izar
  • Article |

    Imaging mass cytometry of the human lung reveals the cellular composition and spatial architecture during COVID-19 and other acute injuries, enabling the characterization of lung pathophysiology from structural, immunological and clinical perspectives.

    • André F. Rendeiro
    • , Hiranmayi Ravichandran
    •  & Robert E. Schwartz
  • Article |

    Expression of the Epstein–Barr virus protein LMP1 in B cells increases expression of—and promotes T cell responses to—tumour-associated antigens, delineating a mechanism of infection-induced anti-tumour immunity, which could inform immune-based approaches to cancer treatment.

    • Il-Kyu Choi
    • , Zhe Wang
    •  & Baochun Zhang
  • Article |

    Respiratory syncytial virus enters cells by binding to cell-surface IGFR1, which activates PKCζ and induces trafficking of the NCL coreceptor to the RSV particles at the cell surface.

    • Cameron D. Griffiths
    • , Leanne M. Bilawchuk
    •  & David J. Marchant
  • Article |

    Infection with SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques causes a respiratory disease that recapitulates aspects of COVID-19 in humans, establishing this species as an animal model for investigating the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.

    • Vincent J. Munster
    • , Friederike Feldmann
    •  & Emmie de Wit
  • Article |

    Infection with SARS-CoV-2 causes interstitial pneumonia and viral replication in the lungs of transgenic mice that express a human version of ACE2, confirming the pathogenicity of the virus in this model.

    • Linlin Bao
    • , Wei Deng
    •  & Chuan Qin
  • Article |

    Crystal structure of the Plasmodium falciparum hexose transporter PfHT1 reveals the molecular basis of its ability to transport multiple types of sugar as efficiently as the dedicated mammalian glucose and fructose transporters.

    • Abdul Aziz Qureshi
    • , Albert Suades
    •  & David Drew
  • Article |

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis suppresses the production of inflammatory cytokines by host cells through the host-mediated ubiquitination of a mycobacterial protein, enhancing the interaction of a host signalling inhibitor with another signalling molecule.

    • Lin Wang
    • , Juehui Wu
    •  & Baoxue Ge
  • Letter |

    A subnanometre-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Rh5–CyRPA–Ripr complex of Plasmodium falciparum provides insights into how this ligand interacts with the receptor basigin in erythrocyte hosts.

    • Wilson Wong
    • , Rick Huang
    •  & Alan F. Cowman
  • Review Article |

    The rapid development of cell culture and animal models has facilitated a new understanding of ZIKV biology and made it possible to generate multiple ZIKV vaccine candidates, which are advancing through clinical trials.

    • Theodore C. Pierson
    •  & Michael S. Diamond
  • Letter |

    The cell adhesion molecule Mxra8 is identified as a receptor for multiple arthritogenic alphaviruses such as chikungunya virus, and anti-Mxra8 monoclonal antibodies are shown to reduce rates of chikungunya virus infection in mice and a range of human cells.

    • Rong Zhang
    • , Arthur S. Kim
    •  & Michael S. Diamond
  • Letter |

    Phylogenies reconstructed using 12 hepatitis B virus genomes, which were recovered from ancient human genome data, reveal a complex history of hepatitis B evolution that is not evident when using only modern samples.

    • Barbara Mühlemann
    • , Terry C. Jones
    •  & Eske Willerslev
  • Letter |

    DNA methylation profiling of virus-specific T cells during acute viral infection in mice provides evidence that a fate-permissive subset of effector CD8 T cells dedifferentiates into long-lived memory T cells.

    • Ben Youngblood
    • , J. Scott Hale
    •  & Rafi Ahmed
  • Letter |

    Infection of male mice with Zika virus caused testicular and epididymal damage, reduction in sex hormone levels, destruction of germ and somatic cells in the testis, loss of mature sperm and reduction in fertility.

    • Jennifer Govero
    • , Prabagaran Esakky
    •  & Michael S. Diamond
  • Letter |

    Treatment of children with human cadaver-derived growth hormone (c-hGH) contaminated with prions resulted in transmission of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD); unexpectedly, in an autopsy study of eight such iCJD patients, the authors found amyloid-β deposition in the grey matter typical of that seen in Alzheimer's disease and amyloid-β in the blood vessel walls characteristic of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, consistent with iatrogenic transmission of amyloid-β pathology in addition to CJD and suggests that healthy c-hGH-exposed individuals may also be at risk of Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    • Zane Jaunmuktane
    • , Simon Mead
    •  & Sebastian Brandner
  • Letter |

    Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhoeal disease in young children but until now it has been difficult to study; here, the parasite is genetically modified, paving the way for in-depth investigation and the development of effective treatments.

    • Sumiti Vinayak
    • , Mattie C. Pawlowic
    •  & Boris Striepen
  • Letter |

    The airway mucin Muc5b (but not Muc5ac) is required for mucociliary clearance, defence against bacterial infection in the airways and middle ear, and maintenance of immune homeostasis in the lungs; Muc5b deficiency causes accumulation of apoptotic macrophages, impairment of phagocytosis and reduced production of interleukin-23, leading to infection and inflammation.

    • Michelle G. Roy
    • , Alessandra Livraghi-Butrico
    •  & Christopher M. Evans
  • Letter |

    In neonatal mice, susceptibility to infection is due to an enriched subset of arginase-2-expressing CD71+ erythroid cells, which suppresses the systemic activation of immune cells, thereby protecting neonates against aberrant inflammation triggered by colonization with commensal microbes.

    • Shokrollah Elahi
    • , James M. Ertelt
    •  & Sing Sing Way
  • Letter |

    Serial passage of the malaria parasite through rodents, primates or human hosts increases parasite virulence, suggesting that vector transmission regulates virulence, although direct evidence for this has been lacking; mosquito transmission is shown here to intrinsically modify asexual blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi, which elicits altered host immune responses that, in turn, modify disease severity.

    • Philip J. Spence
    • , William Jarra
    •  & Jean Langhorne
  • Article |

    The structure of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-class-I-like molecule MR1 in complex with a vitamin B9 derivative is determined; metabolites of vitamin B2 are shown to activate MR1-restricted mucosal-associated invariant T cells, implicating them in microbial immunosurveillance.

    • Lars Kjer-Nielsen
    • , Onisha Patel
    •  & James McCluskey