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Whole-genome sequencing analysis of somatic mutations in liver samples from patients with chronic liver disease identifies driver mutations in metabolism-related genes such as FOXO1, and shows that these variants frequently exhibit convergent evolution.
Monitoring of western chimpanzee populations in Guinea-Bissau and Côte d’Ivoire reveals the presence of rare and different genotypes of Mycobacterium leprae, suggesting greater circulation in wild animals than previously thought.
A single-cell atlas of human fetal bone marrow in healthy fetuses and fetuses with Down syndrome provides insight into developmental haematopoiesis in humans and the transcription and functional differences that occur in Down syndrome.
The authors report the structures of glutamate-gated kainate receptors in complex with NETO2 in both the resting and the desensitized states and reveal how kainate receptors in the brain are regulated by NETO2.
The viral lineage responsible for the February 2021 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea is nested within a clade that predominantly consists of genomes sampled during the 2013–2016 epidemic, suggesting that the virus might have re-emerged after a long period of latency within a previously infected individual.
Data on the nutrient content of almost 3,000 aquatic animal-source foods is combined with a food-systems model to show that an increase in aquatic-food production could reduce the inadequate intake of most nutrients.
A lead-optimization strategy combining porin permeation properties and biochemical potency leads to development of a new class of antibiotic based on broad inhibition of penicillin-binding proteins from Gram-negative bacteria.
Virus-induced senescence is a central pathogenic feature in COVID-19, and senolytics, which promote apoptosis of senescent cells, can reduce disease severity in hamsters,mice, as well as humans infected with SARS-CoV-2.
A robust, cost-effective technique based on whole-exome sequencing data can be used to characterize immune infiltrates, relate the extent of these infiltrates to somatic changes in tumours, and enables prediction of tumour responses to immune checkpoint inhibition therapy.
Cells from embryonic, fetal, paediatric and adult human intestinal tissue are analysed at different locations along the intestinal tract to construct a single-cell atlas of the developing and adult human intestinal tract, encompassing all cell lineages.
Data-driven modelling including numbers of cases and population movements is used to simulate the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States in 2020, providing insights into the transmission of the disease.
Analyses of samples from 728 women with uterine leiomyomas (uterine fibroids), and public data, show that somatic and germline mutations in the SRCAP histone-loading complex genes are associated with the condition.
This Perspective discusses possible future patterns of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the development of variants, potential changes in the patterns of spread and the implications for vaccine deployment and the potential consequences of these issues for the development of policy.
Alanine-scanning mutagenesis is used to identify the PF4 epitope that is recognized by anti-PF4 antibodies in patients with vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopaenia, revealing that the epitope corresponds to the heparin-binding site on PF4.
Two malaria vaccines comprising Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites and treatment with either pyrimethamine or chloroquine induced durable protective responses against both the African vaccine strain and a heterologous South American strain of P. falciparum.
In many European countries, more than half of the SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in late summer 2020 resulted from new introductions, highlighting the threat of viral dissemination when restrictions are lifted.
Cryo-EM structures of human calcium-sensing receptor reveal intrinsic asymmetry in the receptor homodimer upon activation that is stabilized by calcimimetic drugs adopting distinct poses in the two protomers, priming one protomer for G-protein coupling.
Fibre snacks that target distinct features of the microbiomes of donors with obesity transplanted into gnotobiotic mice also lead to fibre-specific changes in the microbiome and physiology when used in controlled-diet human studies.
Single-cell RNA sequencing and imaging of macrophages in human non-small cell lung cancer and in a mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma show that tissue-resident macrophages have a key role in early tumour progression.
Analysis of the spread of the 20E (EU1) variant of SARS-CoV-2 through Europe suggests that international travel and insufficient containment, rather than increased transmissibility, led to a resurgence of infections.
A custom adenine base editor can edit the variant of the β-globin gene that causes sickle cell disease into a non-pathogenic variant in human and mouse cells, and transplantation of the edited cells rescues sickle cell disease in mice.
In a phase-I/II trial in healthy adults, the BNT162b2 vaccine induces neutralizing antibodies and poly-specific T cells against SARS-CoV-2 epitopes that are conserved in a wide range of currently circulating variants.
MARK4 regulates cardiomyocyte contractility by promoting MAP4 phosphorylation, which facilitates the access of VASH2 to microtubules for the detyrosination of α-tubulin; MARK4 deficiency after acute myocardial infarction limits the reduction in the left ventricular ejection fraction.
This Review outlines the gene and protein expression strategies used by viruses to expand the efficiency of their coding and regulatory sequences, and the implications of these mechanisms for developing antiviral agents.
In a cynomolgus macaque model, CRISPR base editors delivered in lipid nanoparticles are shown to efficiently and stably knock down PCSK9 in the liver to reduce levels of PCSK9 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the blood.
Rapid extracellular antigen profiling of a cohort of 194 individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 uncovers diverse autoantibody responses that affect COVID-19 disease severity, progression and clinical and immunological characteristics.
A deep-learning-based algorithm uses routinely acquired histology slides to provide a differential diagnosis for the origin of the primary tumour for complicated cases of metastatic tumours and cancers of unknown primary origin.