Haemic and immune systems

  • Article |

    A genome-wide association study of mosaic loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in UK Biobank participants identifies 156 genetic determinants of LOY, showing that LOY is associated with cancer and non-haematological health outcomes.

    • Deborah J. Thompson
    • , Giulio Genovese
    •  & John R. B. Perry
  • Letter |

    Interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) protein 3 is shown to be an innate defence mechanism against viral infection in vivo; furthermore, a subset of the patients hospitalized during the H1N1 2009 pandemic carried a variant form of the IFITM3 gene.

    • Aaron R. Everitt
    • , Simon Clare
    •  & Paul Kellam
  • Article |

    A genome-wide analysis determines the contribution of DNA breaks and nuclear interactions to the formation of random versus recurrent translocations; whereas random translocations follow nuclear interaction profiles, the frequency of recurrent translocations is directly proportional to the amount of DNA damage at translocation partners.

    • Ofir Hakim
    • , Wolfgang Resch
    •  & Rafael Casellas
  • Review Article |

    An overview of the latest advances in cancer immunotherapy.

    • Ira Mellman
    • , George Coukos
    •  & Glenn Dranoff
  • Letter |

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) fails to induce interferon in the cells that it infects, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. These authors show that the virus can in fact activate the interferon pathway in dendritic cells when the usual block to infection is bypassed. Dendritic cell activation depends on the HIV-1 capsid/cyclophilin A interaction, which is known to have a role in HIV-1 infectivity.

    • Nicolas Manel
    • , Brandon Hogstad
    •  & Dan R. Littman
  • Letter |

    B cells are activated by many different antigens to produce appropriate antibodies. B cells express up to 120,000 B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) complexes on their surface, but how do these complexes remain silent on resting B cells, and how are they activated? It is found here that the BCR on resting cells forms oligomers, and that these may be an autoinhibited form of the receptor. Disruption of the oligomer shifts B cells towards activation.

    • Jianying Yang
    •  & Michael Reth
  • Letter |

    Here, a new type of innate effector leukocyte cell — the nuocyte — is described and characterized. It is shown that interleukin (IL)25 and IL33 drive the expansion of the nuocyte population, that these cells secrete IL13, and that they are required for protection against helminth infection.

    • Daniel R. Neill
    • , See Heng Wong
    •  & Andrew N. J. McKenzie
  • Letter |

    In multicellular organisms, apoptotic cells are removed from tissues by phagocytes, which recognize and engulf the dying cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying the subsequent degradation of the cells have been unclear. Here, two evolutionarily conserved genes have been identified that are required for such processing in Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals. An understanding of these events could lead to new treatments for diseases associated with poor engulfment and destruction of dying cells.

    • Jason M. Kinchen
    •  & Kodi S. Ravichandran