• Article |

    Genomic analyses of human populations in the Pacific provide insights into the peopling history of the region and reveal episodes of biological adaptation relating to the immune system and lipid metabolism through introgression from archaic hominins and polygenic adaptation.

    • Jeremy Choin
    • , Javier Mendoza-Revilla
    •  & Lluis Quintana-Murci
  • Article |

    Mapping enhancer regulation across human cell types and tissues illuminates genome function and provides a resource to connect risk variants for common diseases to their molecular and cellular functions.

    • Joseph Nasser
    • , Drew T. Bergman
    •  & Jesse M. Engreitz
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The complete assembly of human chromosome 8 resolves previous gaps and reveals hidden complex forms of genetic variation, enabling functional and evolutionary characterization of primate centromeres.

    • Glennis A. Logsdon
    • , Mitchell R. Vollger
    •  & Evan E. Eichler
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Genome-wide data for the three oldest known modern human remains in Europe, dated to around 45,000 years ago, shed light on early human migrations in Europe and suggest that mixing with Neanderthals was more common than is often assumed.

    • Mateja Hajdinjak
    • , Fabrizio Mafessoni
    •  & Svante Pääbo
  • Article |

    NOD2 deficiency drives fibrosis and stricturing complications in Crohn’s disease through dysregulated homeostasis of activated fibroblasts and macrophages, which is ameliorated by gp130 blockade in human cell and zebrafish models.

    • Shikha Nayar
    • , Joshua K. Morrison
    •  & Judy H. Cho
  • Article |

    Single-cell analysis of genomes from primary human breast tumours and cell lines shows that chromosomal aberrations continue to evolve during primary tumour expansion, resulting in a milieu of subclones within the tumour.

    • Darlan C. Minussi
    • , Michael D. Nicholson
    •  & Nicholas E. Navin
  • Article |

    HLA peptidomic analysis identifies recurrent intracellular bacteria-derived peptides presented on HLA-I and HLA-II molecules in melanoma tumours, revealing how bacteria can modulate immune functions and responses to cancer therapies.

    • Shelly Kalaora
    • , Adi Nagler
    •  & Yardena Samuels
  • Article |

    Phylogenies of human placental cells based on whole-genome sequencing of bulk samples and microdissections reveal extensive mutagenesis in placental tissue, and suggest that mosaicism is a typical part of normal placental development.

    • Tim H. H. Coorens
    • , Thomas R. W. Oliver
    •  & Sam Behjati
  • Article |

    A ChIP–exo method is used to define the genome-wide positional organization of proteins associated with gene transcription, DNA replication, centromeres, subtelomeres and transposons, revealing distinct protein assemblies for constitutive and inducible gene expression.

    • Matthew J. Rossi
    • , Prashant K. Kuntala
    •  & B. Franklin Pugh
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Candidatus Azoamicus ciliaticola’ transfers energy to its ciliate host in the form of ATP and enables this host to breathe nitrate, demonstrating that eukaryotes with remnant mitochondria can secondarily acquire energy-providing endosymbionts.

    • Jon S. Graf
    • , Sina Schorn
    •  & Jana Milucka
  • Article |

    Genome-wide data from 166 East Asian individuals dating to between 6000 bc and ad 1000 and from 46 present-day groups provide insights into the histories of mixture and migration of human populations in East Asia.

    • Chuan-Chao Wang
    • , Hui-Yuan Yeh
    •  & David Reich
  • Article |

    Siberian mammoth genomes from the Early and Middle Pleistocene subepochs reveal adaptive changes and a key hybridization event, highlighting the value of deep-time palaeogenomics for studies of speciation and long-term evolutionary trends.

    • Tom van der Valk
    • , Patrícia Pečnerová
    •  & Love Dalén
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The goals, resources and design of the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme are described, and analyses of rare variants detected in the first 53,831 samples provide insights into mutational processes and recent human evolutionary history.

    • Daniel Taliun
    • , Daniel N. Harris
    •  & Gonçalo R. Abecasis
  • Article |

    Time-resolved RNA–protein cross-linking with a pulsed femtosecond ultraviolet laser, followed by immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing, enables the determination of binding and dissociation kinetics of the RNA-binding protein DAZL within cells.

    • Deepak Sharma
    • , Leah L. Zagore
    •  & Eckhard Jankowsky
  • Article |

    In mouse models of pancreatic cancer, a cooperative interaction between tissue damage and Kras gene mutation rapidly induces cancer-associated chromatin states in pre-malignant tissue, leading to gene dysregulation and neoplastic transformation.

    • Direna Alonso-Curbelo
    • , Yu-Jui Ho
    •  & Scott W. Lowe
  • Article |

    Single-stranded, DNA-damage-associated small RNAs generated by a BRCA1–RNA-interference complex promote PALB2–RAD52-mediated DNA repair at transcriptional termination pause sites that contain R-loops and are rich in single-stranded DNA breaks in both quiescent and proliferating cells.

    • Elodie Hatchi
    • , Liana Goehring
    •  & David M. Livingston
  • Article |

    An ultra-high-throughput multiplex protein–DNA binding assay is used to assess binding of 270 human transcription factors to 95,886 noncoding variants in the human genome, providing data to improve prediction of the effects of noncoding variants on transcription factor binding and thereby increase understanding of molecular pathways involved in diverse human traits and genetic diseases.

    • Jian Yan
    • , Yunjiang Qiu
    •  & Bing Ren
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The genome of the biofuel crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) reveals climate–gene–biomass associations that underlie adaptation in nature and will facilitate improvements of the yield of this crop for bioenergy production.

    • John T. Lovell
    • , Alice H. MacQueen
    •  & Jeremy Schmutz
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A chromosome-quality genome of the lungfish Neoceratodus fosteri sheds light on the development of obligate air-breathing and the gain of limb-like gene expression in lobed fins, providing insights into the water-to-land transition in vertebrate evolution.

    • Axel Meyer
    • , Siegfried Schloissnig
    •  & Manfred Schartl
  • Article
    | Open Access

    New reference genomes of the two extant monotreme lineages (platypus and echidna) reveal the ancestral and lineage-specific genomic changes that shape both monotreme and mammalian evolution.

    • Yang Zhou
    • , Linda Shearwin-Whyatt
    •  & Guojie Zhang
  • Article |

    Ancient DNA reveals genetic differences between stone-tool users and people associated with ceramic technology in the Caribbean and provides substantially lower estimates of population sizes in the region before European contact.

    • Daniel M. Fernandes
    • , Kendra A. Sirak
    •  & David Reich
  • Article |

    A high-throughput, chromosome-wide analysis of DNA looping reveals its contribution to the organization of chromatin, and provides insight into how nucleosomes are deposited and organised de novo.

    • Aakash Basu
    • , Dmitriy G. Bobrovnikov
    •  & Taekjip Ha
  • Article |

    A genome-wide association study of critically ill patients with COVID-19 identifies genetic signals that relate to important host antiviral defence mechanisms and mediators of inflammatory organ damage that may be targeted by repurposing drug treatments.

    • Erola Pairo-Castineira
    • , Sara Clohisey
    •  & J. Kenneth Baillie
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Comparison of multiple genome assemblies from wheat reveals extensive diversity that results from the complex breeding history of wheat and provides a basis for further potential improvements to this important food crop.

    • Sean Walkowiak
    • , Liangliang Gao
    •  & Curtis J. Pozniak
  • Article |

    A comprehensive map of transcriptomes, cis-regulatory elements, heterochromatin structure, the methylome and 3D genome organization in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) enables identification of species-specific and evolutionarily conserved regulatory features, and provides a foundation for modelling studies on human disease and development.

    • Hongbo Yang
    • , Yu Luan
    •  & Feng Yue
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Chromosome-scale sequence assemblies of 20 diverse varieties of barley are used to construct a first-generation pan-genome, revealing previously hidden genetic variation that can be used by studies aimed at crop improvement

    • Murukarthick Jayakodi
    • , Sudharsan Padmarasu
    •  & Nils Stein
  • Article |

    A yeast clonal descendant of an ancient hybridization event is identified and sheds light on the early evolution of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Alpechin lineage and its abundant Saccharomyces paradoxus introgressions.

    • Melania D’Angiolo
    • , Matteo De Chiara
    •  & Gianni Liti
  • Article |

    An analysis using ribosome-profiling and matched RNA-sequencing data for three organs across five mammalian species and a bird enables the comparison of translatomes and transcriptomes, revealing patterns of co-evolution of these two expression layers.

    • Zhong-Yi Wang
    • , Evgeny Leushkin
    •  & Henrik Kaessmann
  • Article |

    A dataset of the genomes of 363 species from the Bird 10,000 Genomes Project shows increased power to detect shared and lineage-specific variation, demonstrating the importance of phylogenetically diverse taxon sampling in whole-genome sequencing.

    • Shaohong Feng
    • , Josefin Stiller
    •  & Guojie Zhang
  • Analysis
    | Open Access

    A whole-genome alignment of 240 phylogenetically diverse species of eutherian mammal—including 131 previously uncharacterized species—from the Zoonomia Project provides data that support biological discovery, medical research and conservation.

    • Diane P. Genereux
    • , Aitor Serres
    •  & Elinor K. Karlsson
  • Article |

    Whole-genome sequencing analyses of African populations provide insights into continental migration, gene flow and the response to human disease, highlighting the importance of including diverse populations in genomic analyses to understand human ancestry and improve health.

    • Ananyo Choudhury
    • , Shaun Aron
    •  & Neil A. Hanchard