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A robotic pipeline is used to survey a library of mutations in a Drosphila gene enhancer, showing that most mutations altered gene expression and had widespread pleiotropic effects that are likely to constrain regulatory evolution.
To successfully colonize a habitat in the presence of competing chemotactic bacterial populations, the winner is required to expand its range at a speed given by the habitat size and the population doubling time.
Introducing a single ‘sticky’ (hydrophobic) amino acid by point mutation into symmetric protein complexes frequently triggers their association into higher-order assemblies, without affecting their native fold and structure.