Diseases

  • Article |

    A model of the effects of different non-pharmaceutical interventions on the spread of COVID-19 in China suggests that a strategy involving the rapid implementation of a combination of interventions is most effective.

    • Shengjie Lai
    • , Nick W. Ruktanonchai
    •  & Andrew J. Tatem
  • Article |

    A human–SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction map highlights cellular processes that are hijacked by the virus and that can be targeted by existing drugs, including inhibitors of mRNA translation and predicted regulators of the sigma receptors.

    • David E. Gordon
    • , Gwendolyn M. Jang
    •  & Nevan J. Krogan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines have reduced antibiotic consumption substantially among children under five years old in low- and middle-income countries; however, this effect could be doubled if all countries were to implement vaccination programmes and meet universal vaccine coverage targets.

    • Joseph A. Lewnard
    • , Nathan C. Lo
    •  & Ramanan Laxminarayan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    CRISPR-based nucleic acid detection is used in a platform that can simultaneously detect 169 human-associated viruses in multiple samples, providing scalable, multiplexed pathogen detection aimed at routine surveillance for public health.

    • Cheri M. Ackerman
    • , Cameron Myhrvold
    •  & Pardis C. Sabeti
  • Article |

    Detailed virological analysis of nine cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) provides proof of active replication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in tissues of the upper respiratory tract.

    • Roman Wölfel
    • , Victor M. Corman
    •  & Clemens Wendtner
  • Article |

    SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses are identified in Malayan pangolins (Manis javanica); these pangolin-associated coronaviruses belonged to two sub-lineages of SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses, including one that exhibits strong similarity in the receptor-binding domain to SARS-CoV-2.

    • Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam
    • , Na Jia
    •  & Wu-Chun Cao
  • Article |

    A video-based deep learning algorithm—EchoNet-Dynamic—accurately identifies subtle changes in ejection fraction and classifies heart failure with reduced ejection fraction using information from multiple cardiac cycles.

    • David Ouyang
    • , Bryan He
    •  & James Y. Zou
  • Article |

    MicroRNAs from head and neck cancer cells, shuttled to sensory neurons by extracellular vesicles, cause a shift to an adrenergic neuronal phenotype that promotes tumour progression.

    • Moran Amit
    • , Hideaki Takahashi
    •  & Jeffrey N. Myers
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Whole-genome sequencing data for 2,778 cancer samples from 2,658 unique donors across 38 cancer types is used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of cancer, revealing that driver mutations can precede diagnosis by several years to decades.

    • Moritz Gerstung
    • , Clemency Jolly
    •  & Peter Van Loo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Phylogenetic and metagenomic analyses of the complete viral genome of a new coronavirus from the family Coronaviridae reveal that the virus is closely related to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses found in bats in China.

    • Fan Wu
    • , Su Zhao
    •  & Yong-Zhen Zhang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    High-resolution subnational mapping of child growth failure indicators for 105 low- and middle-income countries between 2000 and 2017 shows that, despite considerable progress, substantial geographical inequalities still exist in some countries.

    • Damaris K. Kinyoki
    • , Aaron E. Osgood-Zimmerman
    •  & Simon I. Hay
  • Article |

    In patients with ulcerative colitis, chronic inflammation can lead to remodelling of the colorectal epithelium through positive selection of clones with mutations in genes related to IL-17 signalling, which, however, might be negatively selected during colitis-associated carcinogenesis.

    • Nobuyuki Kakiuchi
    • , Kenichi Yoshida
    •  & Seishi Ogawa
  • Article |

    Cardiac stem cell therapy in mouse models of ischaemia–reperfusion injury demonstrates that improvement in heart function is linked to an immune response characterized by the induction of CCR2+ and CX3CR1+ macrophages.

    • Ronald J. Vagnozzi
    • , Marjorie Maillet
    •  & Jeffery D. Molkentin
  • Article |

    The authors show that NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in microglia of patients with fronto-temporal dementia and in a mouse model of tau pathology, and that the loss of NLRP3 inflammasome function decreases tau pathology and improves cognition in mice.

    • Christina Ising
    • , Carmen Venegas
    •  & Michael T. Heneka
  • Article |

    In patients with alcoholic hepatitis, cytolysin-positive Enterococcus faecalis strains are correlated with liver disease severity and increased mortality, and in mouse models these strains can be specifically targeted by bacteriophages.

    • Yi Duan
    • , Cristina Llorente
    •  & Bernd Schnabl
  • Article |

    Single-cell RNA sequencing is used to characterize and compare the functional diversity of cells from liver biopsies of human scarred and normal liver, and identifies markers for scar-associated macrophages and endothelial cells.

    • P. Ramachandran
    • , R. Dobie
    •  & N. C. Henderson
  • Article |

    A cryo-EM structure of a membrane-embedded core complex of the ESX-3/type VII secretion system from Mycobacterium smegmatis is reported, providing insights into the mechanisms by which virulence factors are secreted by these bacteria.

    • Nikolaos Famelis
    • , Angel Rivera-Calzada
    •  & Sebastian Geibel
  • Article |

    A field trial succeeded in eliminating populations of the mosquito Aedes albopictus through inundative mass release of incompatible Wolbachia-infected males, which were also irradiated to sterilize any accidentally-released females, and so prevent population replacement.

    • Xiaoying Zheng
    • , Dongjing Zhang
    •  & Zhiyong Xi
  • Article |

    A disease model using cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells of patients with mutated LMNA-related dilated cardiomyopathy reveals that the abnormal activation of the PDGF pathway is associated with the arrhythmic phenotypes of patients.

    • Jaecheol Lee
    • , Vittavat Termglinchan
    •  & Joseph C. Wu
  • Review Article |

    The milestones that mark the advances in ageing research, the medical, commercial and societal implications of ageing and the different ageing pathways and processes that are associated with ageing are discussed.

    • Judith Campisi
    • , Pankaj Kapahi
    •  & Eric Verdin
  • Perspective
    | Open Access

    Over ten years, the Human Microbiome Project has provided resources for studying the microbiome and its relationship to disease; this Perspective summarizes the key achievements and findings of the project and its relationship to the broader field.

    • Lita M. Proctor
    • , Heather H. Creasy
    •  & Curtis Huttenhower
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The Inflammatory Bowel Disease Multi’omics Database includes longitudinal data encompassing a multitude of analyses of stool, blood and biopsies of more than 100 individuals, and provides a comprehensive description of host and microbial activities in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    • Jason Lloyd-Price
    • , Cesar Arze
    •  & Curtis Huttenhower
  • Article |

    Analysis of growth dynamics in a dataset from 107 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) reveals both exponential and logistic patterns of growth, which are associated with differences in genetic attributes and clinical outcomes.

    • Michaela Gruber
    • , Ivana Bozic
    •  & Catherine J. Wu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Deep profiling of transcriptomes, metabolomes, cytokines, and proteomes, alongside changes in the microbiome, in samples from individuals with and without prediabetes reveal insights into inter-individual variability and associations between changes in the microbiome and other factors.

    • Wenyu Zhou
    • , M. Reza Sailani
    •  & Michael Snyder
  • Letter |

    A single-cell approach is used to follow the heritable stochastic changes to DNA methylation that occur in primary chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and healthy B cells, allowing the tracing of cell lineage histories and evolution during treatment with ibrutinib.

    • Federico Gaiti
    • , Ronan Chaligne
    •  & Dan A. Landau
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fine-scale estimates of the prevalence of HIV in adults across sub-Saharan Africa reveal substantial within-country variation and local differences in both the direction and rate of change in the prevalence of HIV between 2000 and 2017.

    • Laura Dwyer-Lindgren
    • , Michael A. Cork
    •  & Simon I. Hay
  • Article |

    iNOS-driven dysregulation of the IRE1α–XBP1 pathway leads to cardiomyocyte dysfunction in mice and recapitulates the systemic and cardiovascular features of human heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    • Gabriele G. Schiattarella
    • , Francisco Altamirano
    •  & Joseph A. Hill
  • Review Article |

    Combining mobile phone technologies with infectious disease diagnostics can increase patients’ access to testing and treatment and provide public health authorities with new ways to monitor and control outbreaks of infectious diseases.

    • Christopher S. Wood
    • , Michael R. Thomas
    •  & Molly M. Stevens