Diseases

  • Article |

    Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced respiratory failure suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infects alveolar macrophages to cause release of T cell chemoattractants, thereby inducing local inflammatory cytokine release and further T cell activation, ultimately resulting in a positive feedback loop that drives alveolar inflammation.

    • Rogan A. Grant
    • , Luisa Morales-Nebreda
    •  & Ziyou Ren
  • Article |

    Analyses of virological and surveillance data in France show that a substantial proportion of symptomatic cases of COVID-19 have remained undetected and that easily accessible and efficient testing is required to control the pandemic.

    • Giulia Pullano
    • , Laura Di Domenico
    •  & Vittoria Colizza
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Although progress in the coverage of routine measles vaccination in children in low- and middle-income countries was made during 2000–2019, many countries remain far from the goal of 80% coverage in all districts by 2019.

    • Alyssa N. Sbarra
    • , Sam Rolfe
    •  & Jonathan F. Mosser
  • Article |

    A genome-wide association study of critically ill patients with COVID-19 identifies genetic signals that relate to important host antiviral defence mechanisms and mediators of inflammatory organ damage that may be targeted by repurposing drug treatments.

    • Erola Pairo-Castineira
    • , Sara Clohisey
    •  & J. Kenneth Baillie
  • Article |

    A rapid labelling and immunopurification-based method is used to isolate melanosomes and profile their labile metabolites, revealing that MFSD12 has a key role in cysteine import into melanosomes and lysosomes.

    • Charles H. Adelmann
    • , Anna K. Traunbauer
    •  & David M. Sabatini
  • Article |

    A range of techniques are used to investigate the molecular landscape of chronic kidney disease, and the results suggest that distinct populations of pericytes and fibroblasts are the main source of myofibroblasts in kidney fibrosis.

    • Christoph Kuppe
    • , Mahmoud M. Ibrahim
    •  & Rafael Kramann
  • Article |

    The relative risk of COVID-19-associated death for younger individuals (under 65) is consistent across countries and can be used to robustly compare the underlying number of infections in each country.

    • Megan O’Driscoll
    • , Gabriel Ribeiro Dos Santos
    •  & Henrik Salje
  • Article |

    A mathematical algorithm for population-wide screening of SARS-CoV-2 infections using pooled parallel RT–PCR tests requires considerably fewer tests than individual testing procedures and has minimal delays in the identification of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2.

    • Leon Mutesa
    • , Pacifique Ndishimye
    •  & Wilfred Ndifon
  • Article |

    Analysis of 97,691 high-coverage human blood DNA-derived whole-genome sequences enabled simultaneous identification of germline and somatic mutations that predispose individuals to clonal expansion of haematopoietic stem cells, indicating that both inherited and acquired mutations are linked to age-related cancers and coronary heart disease.

    • Alexander G. Bick
    • , Joshua S. Weinstock
    •  & Pradeep Natarajan
  • Article |

    Ruhugu virus and rustrela virus are the first close relatives of rubella virus, providing insights into the zoonotic origin of rubella virus and the epidemiology and evolution of all three viruses.

    • Andrew J. Bennett
    • , Adrian C. Paskey
    •  & Tony L. Goldberg
  • Review Article |

    The findings of a World Health Organization expert working group that is developing animal models to test vaccines and therapeutic agents for the treatment of COVID-19, and their relevance for preclinical testing, are reviewed.

    • César Muñoz-Fontela
    • , William E. Dowling
    •  & Dan H. Barouch
  • Article |

    Crystal structures of the MEK kinase bound to the scaffold protein KSR and various MEK inhibitors, including the anti-cancer drug trametinib, reveal the molecular and functional mechanisms behind MEK inhibition.

    • Zaigham M. Khan
    • , Alexander M. Real
    •  & Arvin C. Dar
  • Perspective |

    The LifeTime initiative is an ambitious, multidisciplinary programme that aims to improve healthcare by tracking individual human cells during disease processes and responses to treatment in order to develop and implement cell-based interceptive medicine in Europe.

    • Nikolaus Rajewsky
    • , Geneviève Almouzni
    •  & Frauke Zipp
  • Article |

    In individuals who have achieved natural control of HIV-1 without drug treatment, intact proviral sequences are integrated into genomic regions that are not permissive to active viral transcription, indicating deep latency of the virus.

    • Chenyang Jiang
    • , Xiaodong Lian
    •  & Xu G. Yu
  • Article |

    Metabolically-mature human islet-like organoids generated from induced pluripotent stem cells are able to recapitulate insulin-responsive pancreatic islet function and avoid immunologic cell death in diabetic mouse transplantation models.

    • Eiji Yoshihara
    • , Carolyn O’Connor
    •  & Ronald M. Evans
  • Article |

    A genome-wide association study shows that myocardial trabeculae are an important determinant of cardiac performance in the adult heart, identifies conserved pathways that regulate structural complexity and reveals the influence of trabeculae on the susceptibility to cardiovascular disease.

    • Hannah V. Meyer
    • , Timothy J. W. Dawes
    •  & Declan P. O’Regan
  • Article |

    Retinal pericytes connect via interpericyte tunnelling nanotubes into functional syncytia that regulate microcirculatory blood flow to help to match local blood flow with neuronal activity.

    • Luis Alarcon-Martinez
    • , Deborah Villafranca-Baughman
    •  & Adriana Di Polo
  • Article |

    In xenograft tumour models in mice, modulation of dietary serine, serine palmitoyltransferase or phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase activity enables control of the endogenous synthesis of deoxysphingolipids, sensitizing the tumours to metabolic stress and slowing their progression.

    • Thangaselvam Muthusamy
    • , Thekla Cordes
    •  & Christian M. Metallo
  • Article |

    In a dose-escalation study of the COVID-19 RNA vaccine BNT162b1 in 45 healthy adults, RBD-binding IgG concentrations and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing titres in sera increased with dose level and after a second vaccine dose.

    • Mark J. Mulligan
    • , Kirsten E. Lyke
    •  & Kathrin U. Jansen
  • Article |

    Wildlife communities in human-managed ecosystems contain proportionally more species that share human pathogens, and at a higher abundance, than undisturbed habitats, suggesting that landscape transformation creates increasing opportunities for contact between humans and potential hosts of human disease.

    • Rory Gibb
    • , David W. Redding
    •  & Kate E. Jones
  • Article |

    A study of patients with COVID-19 and healthy donors found CD4+ T cells that react to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and human endemic coronaviruses; however, the effect of pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive T cells on clinical outcomes remains to be determined.

    • Julian Braun
    • , Lucie Loyal
    •  & Andreas Thiel
  • Article |

    Genome-wide analysis of tandem DNA repeats in the genomes of individuals with autism spectrum disorder and control participants reveals a strong contribution of tandem repeat expansions to the genetic aetiology and phenotypic complexity of autism spectrum disorder.

    • Brett Trost
    • , Worrawat Engchuan
    •  & Ryan K. C. Yuen
  • Article |

    Analysis of the full-spectrum transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in Wuhan reveals that multipronged non-pharmaceutical interventions were effective in controlling the outbreak, and highlights that covert infections may pose risks of resurgence when reopening without intervention measures.

    • Xingjie Hao
    • , Shanshan Cheng
    •  & Chaolong Wang
  • Article |

    Current outcomes are reported from the ongoing National Lung Matrix Trial, an umbrella trial for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer in which patients are triaged according to their tumour genotype and matched with targeted therapeutic agents.

    • Gary Middleton
    • , Peter Fletcher
    •  & Lucinda Billingham
  • Article |

    OpenSAFELY, a new health analytics platform that includes data from over 17 million adult NHS patients in England, is used to examine factors associated with COVID-19-related death.

    • Elizabeth J. Williamson
    • , Alex J. Walker
    •  & Ben Goldacre
  • Article |

    Analyses of COVID-19 infection rates show that non-pharmaceutical interventions achieved large, beneficial and measurable health outcomes in China, South Korea, Italy, Iran, France and the United States; these results may inform decisions on whether or when these interventions should be deployed, intensified or lifted.

    • Solomon Hsiang
    • , Daniel Allen
    •  & Tiffany Wu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    From 1980 to 2018, the levels of total and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreased in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe.

    • Cristina Taddei
    • , Bin Zhou
    •  & Majid Ezzati
  • Article |

    Genome sequences from 112 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection showed two clades of SARS-CoV-2 virus with similar virulence and clinical outcome, and clinical data from 326 cases suggest that T cell depletion and cytokine bursts are associated with a worse prognosis.

    • Xiaonan Zhang
    • , Yun Tan
    •  & Hongzhou Lu
  • Article |

    SARS-CoV-2 modulates central cellular pathways, such as translation, splicing, carbon metabolism, proteostasis and nucleic acid metabolism, in human cells; these pathways can be inhibited by small-molecule inhibitors to prevent viral replication in the cells.

    • Denisa Bojkova
    • , Kevin Klann
    •  & Christian Münch