Computer science

  • Article
    | Open Access

    A framework through which machine learning can guide mathematicians in discovering new conjectures and theorems is presented and shown to yield mathematical insight on important open problems in different areas of pure mathematics.

    • Alex Davies
    • , Petar Veličković
    •  & Pushmeet Kohli
  • Article |

    A zero-knowledge proof, which can be used to verify secret information, is reported here with security that is enforced by the laws of special relativity.

    • Pouriya Alikhani
    • , Nicolas Brunner
    •  & Hugo Zbinden
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A biologically informed, interpretable deep learning model has been developed to evaluate molecular drivers of resistance to cancer treatment, predict clinical outcomes and guide hypotheses on disease progression.

    • Haitham A. Elmarakeby
    • , Justin Hwang
    •  & Eliezer M. Van Allen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Principles from the field of fair division are used to develop selection algorithms for citizens’ assemblies that produce panels that are representative of the population while simultaneously selecting individuals with near-equal probabilities.

    • Bailey Flanigan
    • , Paul Gölz
    •  & Ariel D. Procaccia
  • Article |

    An artificial intelligence system that can engage in a competitive debate with humans is presented.

    • Noam Slonim
    • , Yonatan Bilu
    •  & Ranit Aharonov
  • Article |

    A reinforcement learning algorithm that explicitly remembers promising states and returns to them as a basis for further exploration solves all as-yet-unsolved Atari games and out-performs previous algorithms on Montezuma’s Revenge and Pitfall.

    • Adrien Ecoffet
    • , Joost Huizinga
    •  & Jeff Clune
  • Article |

    Bayesian optimization is applied in chemical synthesis towards the optimization of various organic reactions and is found to outperform scientists in both average optimization efficiency and consistency.

    • Benjamin J. Shields
    • , Jason Stevens
    •  & Abigail G. Doyle
  • Article |

    A reinforcement-learning algorithm that combines a tree-based search with a learned model achieves superhuman performance in high-performance planning and visually complex domains, without any knowledge of their underlying dynamics.

    • Julian Schrittwieser
    • , Ioannis Antonoglou
    •  & David Silver
  • Review Article
    | Open Access

    NumPy is the primary array programming library for Python; here its fundamental concepts are reviewed and its evolution into a flexible interoperability layer between increasingly specialized computational libraries is discussed.

    • Charles R. Harris
    • , K. Jarrod Millman
    •  & Travis E. Oliphant
  • Review Article |

    Breakthroughs in artificial intelligence and low-cost, contactless sensors have given rise to an ambient intelligence that can potentially improve the physical execution of healthcare delivery, if used in a thoughtful manner.

    • Albert Haque
    • , Arnold Milstein
    •  & Li Fei-Fei
  • Article |

    A video-based deep learning algorithm—EchoNet-Dynamic—accurately identifies subtle changes in ejection fraction and classifies heart failure with reduced ejection fraction using information from multiple cardiac cycles.

    • David Ouyang
    • , Bryan He
    •  & James Y. Zou
  • Article |

    A new computational framework, novoSpaRc, leverages single-cell data to reconstruct spatial context for cells and spatial expression across tissues and organisms, on the basis of an organization principle for gene expression.

    • Mor Nitzan
    • , Nikos Karaiskos
    •  & Nikolaus Rajewsky
  • Perspective |

    The authors discuss the potential for sex and gender analysis to foster scientific discovery, improve experimental efficiency and enable social equality.

    • Cara Tannenbaum
    • , Robert P. Ellis
    •  & Londa Schiebinger
  • Letter |

    A probabilistic computer utilizing probabilistic bits, or p-bits, is implemented with stochastic nanomagnetic devices in a neural-network-inspired electrical circuit operating at room temperature and demonstrates integer factorization up to 945.

    • William A. Borders
    • , Ahmed Z. Pervaiz
    •  & Supriyo Datta
  • Review Article |

    Understanding the behaviour of the machines powered by artificial intelligence that increasingly mediate our social, cultural, economic and political interactions is essential to our ability to control the actions of these intelligent machines, reap their benefits and minimize their harms.

    • Iyad Rahwan
    • , Manuel Cebrian
    •  & Michael Wellman
  • Letter |

    A set of 355 self-assembling DNA ‘tiles’ can be reprogrammed to implement many different computer algorithms—including sorting, palindrome testing and divisibility by three—suggesting that molecular self-assembly could be a reliable algorithmic component in programmable chemical systems.

    • Damien Woods
    • , David Doty
    •  & Erik Winfree
  • Letter |

    Two classification algorithms that use the quantum state space to produce feature maps are demonstrated on a superconducting processor, enabling the solution of problems when the feature space is large and the kernel functions are computationally expensive to estimate.

    • Vojtěch Havlíček
    • , Antonio D. Córcoles
    •  & Jay M. Gambetta
  • Review Article |

    The application and development of machine-learning methods used in experiments at the frontiers of particle physics (such as the Large Hadron Collider) are reviewed, including recent advances based on deep learning.

    • Alexander Radovic
    • , Mike Williams
    •  & Taritree Wongjirad
  • Article |

    Deep neural networks and Monte Carlo tree search can plan chemical syntheses by training models on a huge database of published reactions; their predicted synthetic routes cannot be distinguished from those a human chemist would design.

    • Marwin H. S. Segler
    • , Mike Preuss
    •  & Mark P. Waller
  • Article |

    Starting from zero knowledge and without human data, AlphaGo Zero was able to teach itself to play Go and to develop novel strategies that provide new insights into the oldest of games.

    • David Silver
    • , Julian Schrittwieser
    •  & Demis Hassabis
  • Review Article |

    Quantum machine learning software could enable quantum computers to learn complex patterns in data more efficiently than classical computers are able to.

    • Jacob Biamonte
    • , Peter Wittek
    •  & Seth Lloyd
  • Review Article |

    The era of fully fledged quantum computers threatens to destroy internet security as we know it; the ways in which modern cryptography is developing solutions are reviewed.

    • Daniel J. Bernstein
    •  & Tanja Lange
  • Review Article |

    To enable a quantum computer to solve practical problems more efficiently than classical computers, quantum programming languages and compilers are required to translate quantum algorithms into machine code; here the currently available software is reviewed.

    • Frederic T. Chong
    • , Diana Franklin
    •  & Margaret Martonosi
  • Review Article |

    Proposals for demonstrating quantum supremacy, when a quantum computer supersedes any possible classical computer at a specific task, are reviewed.

    • Aram W. Harrow
    •  & Ashley Montanaro
  • Article |

    The authors use modelling to show that the network of trading routes known as the Silk Road emerged from hundreds of years of interactions between pastoralists as they moved their herds and flocks between higher and lower elevations in generally mountainous regions.

    • Michael D. Frachetti
    • , C. Evan Smith
    •  & Tim Williams
  • Review Article |

    Quantum technology enables new methods for generating of randomness with minimal assumptions, certified by the violation of a Bell inequality, which opens up new theoretical and experimental research directions and leads to new challenges.

    • Antonio Acín
    •  & Lluis Masanes
  • Letter |

    Failed chemical reactions are rarely reported, even though they could still provide information about the bounds on the reaction conditions needed for product formation; here data from such reactions are used to train a machine-learning algorithm, which is subsequently able to predict reaction outcomes with greater accuracy than human intuition.

    • Paul Raccuglia
    • , Katherine C. Elbert
    •  & Alexander J. Norquist
  • Letter |

    An electronic–photonic microprocessor chip manufactured using a conventional microelectronics foundry process is demonstrated; the chip contains 70 million transistors and 850 photonic components and directly uses light to communicate to other chips.

    • Chen Sun
    • , Mark T. Wade
    •  & Vladimir M. Stojanović
  • Letter |

    A general method of folding arbitrary polygonal digital meshes in DNA uses a routeing algorithm based on graph theory and a relaxation simulation that traces scaffold strands through the target structures to produce complex structures with an open conformation that are stable under biological assay conditions.

    • Erik Benson
    • , Abdulmelik Mohammed
    •  & Björn Högberg
  • Review Article |

    • Yann LeCun
    • , Yoshua Bengio
    •  & Geoffrey Hinton
  • Letter |

    An intelligent trial-and-error learning algorithm is presented that allows robots to adapt in minutes to compensate for a wide variety of types of damage.

    • Antoine Cully
    • , Jeff Clune
    •  & Jean-Baptiste Mouret
  • Letter |

    An artificial agent is developed that learns to play a diverse range of classic Atari 2600 computer games directly from sensory experience, achieving a performance comparable to that of an expert human player; this work paves the way to building general-purpose learning algorithms that bridge the divide between perception and action.

    • Volodymyr Mnih
    • , Koray Kavukcuoglu
    •  & Demis Hassabis
  • Review Article |

    To evaluate the promise of potential computing technologies, this review examines a wide range of fundamental limits, such as to performance, power consumption, size and cost, from the device level to the system level.

    • Igor L. Markov