Climate sciences

  • Article |

    The core North American monsoon arises through topographic steering of the jet stream, and should be considered as convection-enhanced orographic rainfall produced by a mechanically forced stationary wave.

    • William R. Boos
    •  & Salvatore Pascale
  • Article |

    Through an idealized set of simulations, with a model that incorporates key physics, research reveals dramatic swings between massive rainfall events and extended dry periods in hothouse climates.

    • Jacob T. Seeley
    •  & Robin D. Wordsworth
  • Article |

    A record of flow-speed variations from an ocean core shows that a key component of Indian Ocean circulation rapidly accelerated 2.1 million years ago, coincident with intensification of Pacific Walker circulation.

    • H. J. L. van der Lubbe
    • , I. R. Hall
    •  & J. C. A. Joordens
  • Article |

    Preliminary modelling of airborne microplastics suggests that they may be exerting a minor cooling influence on the present-day atmosphere, and continued production could have increasing effects on the climate system in future.

    • Laura E. Revell
    • , Peter Kuma
    •  & Sally Gaw
  • Article |

    New proxy data for ocean pH and an ocean–atmosphere model show that a radically different ocean circulation led to decoupling of ocean productivity and upwelling in the equatorial Pacific Ocean 3–6 million years ago.

    • Madison G. Shankle
    • , Natalie J. Burls
    •  & Pincelli M. Hull
  • Article |

    The amount of carbon dioxide released by the Australian wildfires of 2019–2020 is uncertain, but is estimated here using satellite observations of carbon monoxide to be more than twice the amount suggested by fire inventories.

    • Ivar R. van der Velde
    • , Guido R. van der Werf
    •  & Ilse Aben
  • Article |

    Oceanic deposition of wildfire aerosols can enhance marine productivity, as supported here by satellite and in situ profiling floats data showing that emissions from the 2019–2020 Australian wildfires fuelled phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean.

    • Weiyi Tang
    • , Joan Llort
    •  & Nicolas Cassar
  • Article |

    Modelling suggests that the Montreal Protocol may be mitigating climate change by protecting the land carbon sink, as well as by protecting the ozone layer and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    • Paul J. Young
    • , Anna B. Harper
    •  & Rolando R. Garcia
  • Article |

    Analysis of shallow-water marine carbonate samples from 101 stratigraphic units allows construction of a record of lithium isotopes from the past 3 billion years, tracking the evolution of the global carbon and silicon cycles.

    • Boriana Kalderon-Asael
    • , Joachim A. R. Katchinoff
    •  & Philip A. E. Pogge von Strandmann
  • Article |

    Aircraft observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and monoxide concentrations in Brazil show higher carbon emissions in eastern Amazonia than in the western part, which are linked to increased ecosystem stress and fire occurrence.

    • Luciana V. Gatti
    • , Luana S. Basso
    •  & Raiane A. L. Neves
  • Article |

    To enable net-negative CO2 emissions, the repayment of previously accrued carbon debt by establishing the responsibility for the net removal of CO2 by carbon-emitting parties through carbon removal obligations is necessary.

    • Johannes Bednar
    • , Michael Obersteiner
    •  & Jim W. Hall
  • Article |

    A revised date for the Laacher See eruption using measurements of subfossil trees shifts the chronology of European varved lakes relative to the Greenland ice core record, synchronizing the onset of the Younger Dryas across the North Atlantic–European sector.

    • Frederick Reinig
    • , Lukas Wacker
    •  & Ulf Büntgen
  • Article |

    Cellular fluidics provides a platform of unit-cell-based, three-dimensional structures for the deterministic control of multiphase flow, transport and reaction processes.

    • Nikola A. Dudukovic
    • , Erika J. Fong
    •  & Eric B. Duoss
  • Article |

    Large forest fires in Alaska and the Northwest Territories can ‘overwinter’ and then reignite in the following fire season, contributing up to one-third of the burned area in individual years.

    • Rebecca C. Scholten
    • , Randi Jandt
    •  & Sander Veraverbeke
  • Article |

    Analysis of satellite stereo imagery uncovers two decades of mass change for all of Earth’s glaciers, revealing accelerated glacier shrinkage and regionally contrasting changes consistent with decadal climate variability.

    • Romain Hugonnet
    • , Robert McNabb
    •  & Andreas Kääb
  • Review Article |

    Ongoing global warming is likely to cause tipping point thresholds to be passed, but an abrupt system change can still be avoided if the warming is reversed quickly relative to the timescale of the tipping element.

    • Paul D. L. Ritchie
    • , Joseph J. Clarke
    •  & Chris Huntingford
  • Review Article |

    This Review proposes an interdisciplinary framework for researching climate–society interactions that focuses on the mechanisms through which climate change has influenced societies, and the uncertainties of discerning this influence across different spatiotemporal scales.

    • Dagomar Degroot
    • , Kevin Anchukaitis
    •  & Natale Zappia
  • Article |

    A synthesis of elevated carbon dioxide experiments reveals that when plant biomass is strongly stimulated by elevated carbon dioxide levels, soil carbon storage declines, and where biomass is weakly stimulated, soil carbon accumulates.

    • C. Terrer
    • , R. P. Phillips
    •  & R. B. Jackson
  • Article |

    Data from the ICESat-2 satellite quantifying the variability of water levels in natural and human-managed water bodies show that a disproportionate majority of global water storage variability occurs in human-managed reservoirs.

    • Sarah W. Cooley
    • , Jonathan C. Ryan
    •  & Laurence C. Smith
  • Article |

    Atmospheric concentration measurements at remote sites around the world reveal an accelerated decline in the global mean CFC-11 concentration during 2018 and 2019, reversing recent trends and building confidence in the timely recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer.

    • Stephen A. Montzka
    • , Geoffrey S. Dutton
    •  & Christina Theodoridi
  • Article |

    Unexpected intervals of low 230Th concentration in marine sediment cores are explained by considering that during at least two such periods, the Arctic Ocean and Nordic seas were composed entirely of fresh water and covered by a thick ice shelf.

    • Walter Geibert
    • , Jens Matthiessen
    •  & Ruediger Stein
  • Article |

    Modelling and remote sensing show that by the end of the twenty-first century, lake heatwaves will be several degrees Celsius warmer and some will be months longer, with potentially major adverse consequences for lake ecosystems.

    • R. Iestyn Woolway
    • , Eleanor Jennings
    •  & Stephen C. Maberly
  • Article |

    Analysis of dust from marine sediments in the North Pacific shows that warm periods during the Pliocene witnessed weaker and more poleward westerlies than during subsequent glacial periods.

    • Jordan T. Abell
    • , Gisela Winckler
    •  & Timothy D. Herbert
  • Article |

    North Atlantic landfalling hurricanes are weakening more slowly than in the past because warming oceans are increasing the moisture carried by the storm until it hits land, and this storm moisture acts as an ongoing heat source post-landfall.

    • Lin Li
    •  & Pinaki Chakraborty
  • Article |

    Multicriteria optimization identifies global priority areas for ecosystem restoration and estimates their benefits for biodiversity and climate, providing cost–benefit analyses that highlight the importance of optimizing spatial planning and incorporating several biomes in restoration strategies.

    • Bernardo B. N. Strassburg
    • , Alvaro Iribarrem
    •  & Piero Visconti
  • Article |

    Bottom-up and top-down approaches are used to quantify global nitrous oxide sources and sinks resulting from both natural and anthropogenic sources, revealing a 30% increase in global human-induced emissions between 1980 and 2016.

    • Hanqin Tian
    • , Rongting Xu
    •  & Yuanzhi Yao