Cell growth

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Auxin induces transmembrane-kinase-dependent activation of H+-ATPase in the plasma membrane through phosphorylation of its penultimate threonine residue, promoting apoplastic acidification and hypocotyl cell elongation in Arabidopsis.

    • Wenwei Lin
    • , Xiang Zhou
    •  & Zhenbiao Yang
  • Article |

    The rate of scale regeneration in zebrafish is controlled by the frequency of rhythmic travelling waves of Erk activity, which are broadcast from a central source to induce ring-like patterns of osteoblast tissue growth.

    • Alessandro De Simone
    • , Maya N. Evanitsky
    •  & Stefano Di Talia
  • Article |

    In xenograft tumour models in mice, modulation of dietary serine, serine palmitoyltransferase or phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase activity enables control of the endogenous synthesis of deoxysphingolipids, sensitizing the tumours to metabolic stress and slowing their progression.

    • Thangaselvam Muthusamy
    • , Thekla Cordes
    •  & Christian M. Metallo
  • Article |

    Cell competition in the developing mouse epithelium involves apoptosis and engulfment when the epithelium has only one layer, but switches to involve asymmetric cell division and differentiation of ‘loser’ cells as the epithelium becomes stratified.

    • Stephanie J. Ellis
    • , Nicholas C. Gomez
    •  & Elaine Fuchs
  • Article |

    A set of 34 excised introns in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, characterized by having a short distance between the lariat branch point and the 3′ splice site, have a biological function within the TOR growth-signalling network.

    • Jeffrey T. Morgan
    • , Gerald R. Fink
    •  & David P. Bartel
  • Letter |

    The Ras-related GTPase RAP2 is a key intracellular signal transducer by which extracellular matrix rigidity controls mechanosensitive cellular activities through YAP and TAZ.

    • Zhipeng Meng
    • , Yunjiang Qiu
    •  & Kun-Liang Guan
  • Article |

    The cryo-electron microscopy and crystal structures of several mTORC1 complexes, and accompanying biochemical analyses, shed light on how mTORC1 is regulated and how cancer mutations lead to its hyperactivation.

    • Haijuan Yang
    • , Xiaolu Jiang
    •  & Nikola P. Pavletich
  • Letter |

    Wild-type Drosophila epithelial cells outcompete proto-oncogenic cells through translocation of the ligand Sas to the wild-type–tumour cell interface, where it binds the PTP10D receptor of the tumour cell, initiating pro-apoptotic signalling.

    • Masatoshi Yamamoto
    • , Shizue Ohsawa
    •  & Tatsushi Igaki
  • Letter |

    During early-stage tumour growth in Drosphila, tumour cells acquire necessary nutrients by triggering autophagy in surrounding cells in the tumour microenvironment.

    • Nadja S. Katheder
    • , Rojyar Khezri
    •  & Tor Erik Rusten
  • Letter |

    Structural data on the protein CASTOR1 reveal how the mTORC1 pathway senses intracellular arginine, suggesting a repurposing of an evolutionarily pre-metazoan mechanism.

    • Robert A. Saxton
    • , Lynne Chantranupong
    •  & David M. Sabatini
  • Letter |

    It is generally thought that the quiescence of tissue is not actively maintained, but rather a state reflecting the absence of proliferative signal; here the authors find that quiescence is actively maintained by paracrine hedgehog signalling provided by the epithelium in the mouse adult lung, and that hedgehog is dynamically regulated during injury repair and resolution for proper restoration of tissue homeostasis after injury.

    • Tien Peng
    • , David B. Frank
    •  & Edward E. Morrisey
  • Letter |

    The most comprehensive architectural model to date of the nuclear pore complex reveals previously unknown local interactions, and a role for nucleoporin 358 in Y-complex oligomerization.

    • Alexander von Appen
    • , Jan Kosinski
    •  & Martin Beck
  • Letter |

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3)—the deregulation of which has been linked with diverse cancers—is shown to bind to and direct the specialized translation of a subset of messenger RNAs, primarily involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and can exert either translational activation or repression.

    • Amy S. Y. Lee
    • , Philip J. Kranzusch
    •  & Jamie H. D. Cate
  • Letter |

    The mTORC1 protein kinase complex integrates nutrient and growth stimuli to modulate signalling pathways that regulate cellular metabolism and physiology, but the molecular nature of the amino acid sensing mechanism at the lysosome is unknown; here, an orphan member of the human solute carrier group of proteins, SLC38A9, is shown to be an integral component of the lysosomal machinery that can directly sense amino acids and activate mTORC1.

    • Manuele Rebsamen
    • , Lorena Pochini
    •  & Giulio Superti-Furga
  • Letter |

    The nature of the retinal cell-type-specific circuitry that predisposes to retinoblastoma is demonstrated, in which a program that is unique to post-mitotic human cone precursors sensitizes to the oncogenic effects of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein depletion; hence, the loss of Rb collaborates with the molecular framework of cone precursors to initiate tumorigenesis.

    • Xiaoliang L. Xu
    • , Hardeep P. Singh
    •  & David Cobrinik
  • Article |

    The translation of many messenger RNAs that encode important oncogenes and transcription factors depends on the eIF4A RNA helicase to resolve G-quadruplex structures, implying eIF4A inhibition as an effective cancer therapy.

    • Andrew L. Wolfe
    • , Kamini Singh
    •  & Hans-Guido Wendel
  • Letter |

    Folate receptor-α (FRα) is overexpressed in many cancer cells and is therefore an important therapeutic target: here the X-ray crystal structure of folate-bound FRα is presented, revealing details of the ligand-binding pocket that may be useful in the development of small-molecule inhibitors for anticancer therapy.

    • Chen Chen
    • , Jiyuan Ke
    •  & Karsten Melcher
  • Article |

    Co-crystal structures of a number of complexes involving truncated mammalian target of rapamycin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related protein kinase, reveal an intrinsically active kinase conformation and show how rapamycin–FKBP12 directly blocks substrate recruitment to the kinase domain.

    • Haijuan Yang
    • , Derek G. Rudge
    •  & Nikola P. Pavletich
  • Letter |

    During periods of fasting the liver produces ketone bodies, which the peripheral tissues can use as a source of energy. Here it is shown that fasting inhibits multi-component mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in the liver. Inhibition of mTORC1 is required for activation of PPARα, a master regulator that switches on genes involved in ketogenesis. Livers from aged mice have increased mTORC1 signalling, reduced PPARα activity, and reduced ketone production. The observation that mTORC1 promotes an ageing phenotype in the liver fits well with the observation that inhibition of this pathway increases lifespan in several organisms.

    • Shomit Sengupta
    • , Timothy R. Peterson
    •  & David M. Sabatini
  • Letter |

    When cells are starved, the enzyme TOR is inhibited, inducing autophagy. In this process, autophagosomes sequester intracellular components and then fuse with lysosomes, producing autolysosomes in which cargo is degraded to regenerate nutrients. Now, a mechanism is revealed by which lysosomes are re-formed. When starvation conditions are prolonged, mTOR is re-activated; this attenuates autophagy and results in tubules and vesicles extruding from the autolysosome and maturing into functional lysosomes.

    • Li Yu
    • , Christina K. McPhee
    •  & Michael J. Lenardo