Bose–Einstein condensates

Bose–Einstein condensates are a state of matter in which all the constituent particles exist in their lowest energy level. The Pauli Exclusion Principle prevents more than one electron (an example of a fermion) per quantum state; however no such limit is imposed on particles known as bosons, such as helium-4 atoms.

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News and Comment

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    Interacting quantum systems are difficult to formulate theoretically, but Nikolai Bogoliubov offered a workaround more than 70 years ago that has stood the test of time. Now, correlations that are a crucial feature of his theory have been observed.

    • S. S. Hodgman
    •  & A. G. Truscott
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    #BlackInPhysics Week aimed to build community among physicists by celebrating, supporting and increasing the visibility of Black physicists. The week accomplished all of this, and more.

    • Charles D. Brown II
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