Bose–Einstein condensates

Bose–Einstein condensates are a state of matter in which all the constituent particles exist in their lowest energy level. The Pauli Exclusion Principle prevents more than one electron (an example of a fermion) per quantum state; however no such limit is imposed on particles known as bosons, such as helium-4 atoms.


Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research
    | Open Access

    Existing techniques for high-resolution imaging of trapped quantum gases are limited to two-dimensional systems, but the approach described here works in three dimensions by magnifying the quantum gas with matter wave optics.

    • Luca Asteria
    • , Henrik P. Zahn
    •  & Christof Weitenberg
    Nature 599, 571-575
  • Research |

    An optical lattice for trapping a Bose–Einstein condensate reported here includes photon-mediated atom–atom interactions that replicate acoustic modes in real crystals.

    • Yudan Guo
    • , Ronen M. Kroeze
    •  & Benjamin L. Lev
    Nature 599, 211-215
  • Research
    | Open Access

    The microscopic nature of neutral collective excitation of the fractional quantum Hall state is still debated. Here the authors show that a macroscopic ensemble of neutral excitations in the 1/3 state exhibits properties of a Bose system with an exceptionally long coherence time.

    • L. V. Kulik
    • , A. S. Zhuravlev
    •  & V. Y. Umansky
  • Research
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors show that the interaction between microcavity photons and excitons in an atomically thin WSe2 results in a hybridized regime of strong light-matter coupling. Coherence build-up is accompanied by a threshold-like behaviour of the emitted light intensity, which is a fingerprint of a polariton laser effect.

    • Hangyong Shan
    • , Lukas Lackner
    •  & Carlos Antón-Solanas
  • Research |

    So far only signatures of excitonic insulators have been reported, but here direct thermodynamic evidence is provided for a strongly correlated excitonic insulating state in transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor double layers.

    • Liguo Ma
    • , Phuong X. Nguyen
    •  & Jie Shan
    Nature 598, 585-589

News and Comment

  • News & Views |

    Interacting quantum systems are difficult to formulate theoretically, but Nikolai Bogoliubov offered a workaround more than 70 years ago that has stood the test of time. Now, correlations that are a crucial feature of his theory have been observed.

    • S. S. Hodgman
    •  & A. G. Truscott
  • Comments & Opinion |

    #BlackInPhysics Week aimed to build community among physicists by celebrating, supporting and increasing the visibility of Black physicists. The week accomplished all of this, and more.

    • Charles D. Brown II
    •  & Eileen Gonzales
    Nature Physics 17, 3-4
  • News & Views |

    Flow without friction is a strange phenomenon usually seen in quantum fluids that are cooled to temperatures near absolute zero, but features of superfluidity have now been seen with polaritons at ambient conditions.

    • Thilo Stöferle
    Nature Physics 13, 825-826
  • News & Views |

    An excitonic Bose–Einstein condensate has so far been realized only in particular semiconductor heterostructure setups. Now, experiments show that such condensates can form in double graphene bilayers separated by hexagonal boron nitride.

    • Koji Muraki
    Nature Physics 13, 726-728