Biological sciences

  • Article |

    The functional role of intestinal secretory IgA for host–microbiota interactions is investigated, showing that intestinal bacterial exposure leads to selection of diverse plasma cells that secrete antigen-specific IgA, which predominantly targets bacterial membranes.

    • Tim Rollenske
    • , Sophie Burkhalter
    •  & Andrew J. Macpherson
  • Article |

    Whole-genome sequencing analysis of somatic mutations in liver samples from patients with chronic liver disease identifies driver mutations in metabolism-related genes such as FOXO1, and shows that these variants frequently exhibit convergent evolution.

    • Stanley W. K. Ng
    • , Foad J. Rouhani
    •  & Peter J. Campbell
  • Article |

    Structural studies of the complex of anaplastic lymphoma kinase and leukocyte tyrosine kinase and their activating cytokines identify unique architectural features of the complex, and provide a novel mechanistic paradigm among receptor tyrosine kinases.

    • Steven De Munck
    • , Mathias Provost
    •  & Savvas N. Savvides
  • Article |

    The cryo-electron microscopy structure of domain 1 of the LDLRAD3 receptor in complex with virus-like particles of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) provides insights into the assembly and entry of VEEV and other alphaviruses.

    • Bingting Ma
    • , Cuiqing Huang
    •  & Xinzheng Zhang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Monitoring of western chimpanzee populations in Guinea-Bissau and Côte d’Ivoire reveals the presence of rare and different genotypes of Mycobacterium leprae, suggesting greater circulation in wild animals than previously thought.

    • Kimberley J. Hockings
    • , Benjamin Mubemba
    •  & Fabian H. Leendertz
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Structure of human nuclear pore complex in its cellular environment reveals a substantially dilated central channel and shows that its nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic rings restrict channel dimensions and create membrane asymmetry at the inner ring.

    • Anthony P. Schuller
    • , Matthias Wojtynek
    •  & Thomas U. Schwartz
  • Article |

    This study systematically profiles the activity of several classes of antibiotics on gut commensal bacteria and identifies drugs that mitigate their collateral damage on commensal bacteria without compromising their efficacy against pathogens.

    • Lisa Maier
    • , Camille V. Goemans
    •  & Athanasios Typas
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Individual memory antibodies selected over time by natural infection with SARS-CoV-2 have greater potency and breadth than antibodies elicited by vaccination, whereas the overall neutralizing potency of plasma is greater following vaccination.

    • Alice Cho
    • , Frauke Muecksch
    •  & Michel C. Nussenzweig
  • Article |

    Focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) combined with deep-learning-based segmentation is used to produce three-dimensional reconstructions of complete cells and tissues, in which up to 35 different organelle classes are annotated.

    • Larissa Heinrich
    • , Davis Bennett
    •  & Destiny Nguyen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    An examination of motor cortex in humans, marmosets and mice reveals a generally conserved cellular makeup that is likely to extend to many mammalian species, but also differences in gene expression, DNA methylation and chromatin state that lead to species-dependent specializations.

    • Trygve E. Bakken
    • , Nikolas L. Jorstad
    •  & Ed S. Lein
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mesoscale connectomic mapping of the cortico–basal ganglia–thalamic network reveals key architectural and information processing features.

    • Nicholas N. Foster
    • , Joshua Barry
    •  & Hong-Wei Dong
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A comprehensive survey of the epigenome from 45 regions of the mouse cortex, hippocampus, striatum, pallidum and olfactory areas using single-nucleus DNA methylation sequencing enables identification of 161 cell clusters with distinct locations and projection targets and provides insights into the regulatory landscape underlying neuronal diversity and spatial regulation.

    • Hanqing Liu
    • , Jingtian Zhou
    •  & Joseph R. Ecker
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The BRAIN Initiative Cell Census Network has constructed a multimodal cell census and atlas of the mammalian primary motor cortex in a landmark effort towards understanding brain cell-type diversity, neural circuit organization and brain function.

    • Edward M. Callaway
    • , Hong-Wei Dong
    •  & Susan Sunkin
  • Article |

    Global inverse modelling of plant water acquisition depth and isotope-based plant water use estimates demonstrate globally prevalent use of precipitation from distant sources, and that water-stressed ecosystems are well suited to using past and remote precipitation.

    • Gonzalo Miguez-Macho
    •  & Ying Fan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sparse labelling and whole-brain imaging are used to reconstruct and classify brain-wide complete morphologies of 1,741 individual neurons in the mouse brain, revealing a dependence on both brain region and transcriptomic profile.

    • Hanchuan Peng
    • , Peng Xie
    •  & Hongkui Zeng
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A combination of genetic strategies and tools is used to define and fate-map different subtypes of glutamatergic pyramidal neurons according to their developmental and molecular programs, providing insight into the assembly of cortical processing networks.

    • Katherine S. Matho
    • , Dhananjay Huilgol
    •  & Z. Josh Huang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    RNA-sequencing analysis of the prenatal human brain at different stages of development shows that areal transcriptional signatures are dynamic and coexist with developmental and cell-type signatures.

    • Aparna Bhaduri
    • , Carmen Sandoval-Espinosa
    •  & Arnold R. Kriegstein
  • Article |

    Astrocytes can respond to diseases and injuries of the central nervous system by driving the death of neurons and mature oligodendrocytes through the delivery of long-chain saturated fatty acids contained in lipoparticles.

    • Kevin A. Guttenplan
    • , Maya K. Weigel
    •  & Ben A. Barres
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Quantitative analysis of the methylation of mouse cortical neurons that project to different cortical and subcortical target regions provides insight into genetic mechanisms that contribute to differences in cell function.

    • Zhuzhu Zhang
    • , Jingtian Zhou
    •  & Edward M. Callaway
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Multi-modal analysis is used to generate a 3D atlas of the upper limb area of the mouse primary motor cortex, providing a framework for future studies of motor control circuitry.

    • Rodrigo Muñoz-Castañeda
    • , Brian Zingg
    •  & Hong-Wei Dong
  • Article |

    Experiments in mice identify the medial septum as an extrahippocampal input region that is critical for social memory formation, and show that modulation of the medial septum by serotonin regulates the stability of social memories.

    • Xiaoting Wu
    • , Wade Morishita
    •  & Robert C. Malenka
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Two different cell types in the mediodorsal thalamus have complementary roles in decision-making, with one type of mediodorsal projection amplifying prefrontal activity under low signal levels and one type suppressing it under high noise levels.

    • Arghya Mukherjee
    • , Norman H. Lam
    •  & Michael M. Halassa
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Combined patch clamp recording, biocytin staining and single-cell RNA-sequencing of human neurocortical neurons shows an expansion of glutamatergic neuron types relative to mouse that characterizes the greater complexity of the human neocortex.

    • Jim Berg
    • , Staci A. Sorensen
    •  & Ed S. Lein
  • Article |

    Studies in mice, humans and macaques show that retinoic acid signalling has an important role in the development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in primates and may also underlie the evolutionary diversification of the PFC.

    • Mikihito Shibata
    • , Kartik Pattabiraman
    •  & Nenad Sestan
  • Article |

    Cryo-electron microscopy structures of tau filaments from progressive supranuclear palsy and other tauopathies reveal new filament conformations, and suggest that tauopathies can be classified on several different levels according to their filament folds.

    • Yang Shi
    • , Wenjuan Zhang
    •  & Sjors H. W. Scheres