Adult stem cells

  • Article |

    An analysis of skeletal stem cells in mice reveals that bone ageing occurs at the level of local niches affecting skeletal and haematopoietic lineage output, which may influence systemic aspects of multi-organ physiological ageing.

    • Thomas H. Ambrosi
    • , Owen Marecic
    •  & Charles K. F. Chan
  • Article |

    Stress inhibits  hair growth in mice through the release of the stress hormone corticosterone from the adrenal glands, which inhibits the activation of hair follicle stem cells by suppressing the expression of a secreted factor, GAS6, from the dermal niche.

    • Sekyu Choi
    • , Bing Zhang
    •  & Ya-Chieh Hsu
  • Article |

    Single-cell analysis of blood vessels in the alveolus, the site of chronic disease and virus-induced lung injury, reveals two intermingled endothelial cell types with specialized gas exchange and stem cell functions.

    • Astrid Gillich
    • , Fan Zhang
    •  & Ross J. Metzger
  • Article |

    Cardiac stem cell therapy in mouse models of ischaemia–reperfusion injury demonstrates that improvement in heart function is linked to an immune response characterized by the induction of CCR2+ and CX3CR1+ macrophages.

    • Ronald J. Vagnozzi
    • , Marjorie Maillet
    •  & Jeffery D. Molkentin
  • Article |

    Single-cell RNA sequencing of cells from healthy human liver, hepatocellular carcinoma and chimaeric mouse liver identifies subtypes of liver cells, epithelial progenitors and differences between healthy and diseased cells.

    • Nadim Aizarani
    • , Antonio Saviano
    •  & Dominic Grün
  • Article |

    Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of neurogenic niches in young and old mice reveals that T cells infiltrate the neurogenic niches of old mice and inhibit the proliferation of neural stem cells, in part through expression of interferon-γ.

    • Ben W. Dulken
    • , Matthew T. Buckley
    •  & Anne Brunet
  • Letter |

    Lineage tracing, biophysical modelling and intestinal transplantation approaches are used to demonstrate that, in the mouse fetal intestinal epithelium, cells are highly plastic with respect to cellular identity and, independent of LGR5 expression and cell position, can contribute to the adult stem cell compartment.

    • Jordi Guiu
    • , Edouard Hannezo
    •  & Kim B. Jensen
  • Article |

    After acute inflammation, epithelial stem cells retain a memory that accelerates restoration of the skin barrier during subsequent tissue damage, and this enhancement is dependent on the AIM2 inflammasome and its downstream effectors.

    • Shruti Naik
    • , Samantha B. Larsen
    •  & Elaine Fuchs
  • Letter |

    Intravital imaging reveals unanticipated plasticity of adult skin epithelium in mice when faced with mutational or non-mutational insults, and elucidates the dynamic cellular behaviours used for its return to a homeostatic state.

    • Samara Brown
    • , Cristiana M. Pineda
    •  & Valentina Greco
  • Article |

    The protein translation rate is low in tissue stem cells and tumour-initiating cells, and genetically preventing cytosine-5 methylation on transfer RNA in skin tumours is shown to favour the maintenance of a state of translational inhibition in mice, with tumour-initiating cells in this state becoming more sensitive to cytotoxic stress.

    • Sandra Blanco
    • , Roberto Bandiera
    •  & Michaela Frye
  • Article |

    A high-fat diet increases the number of intestinal stem cells in mammals, both in vivo and in intestinal organoids; a pathway that involves PPAR-δ confers organoid-initiating capacity to non-stem cells and induces them to form in vivo tumours after loss of the Apc tumour suppressor.

    • Semir Beyaz
    • , Miyeko D. Mana
    •  & Ömer H. Yilmaz
  • Article |

    Drosophila intestinal stem cells (ISCs) respond to changes in diet, particularly L-glutamate levels, by modulating Ca2+ signalling to adapt their proliferation rate; furthermore, Ca2+ is shown to be central to the response of ISCs to a wide range of dietary and stress stimuli.

    • Hansong Deng
    • , Akos A. Gerencser
    •  & Heinrich Jasper
  • Article |

    In the uninjured liver, a population of self-renewing, diploid hepatocytes is identified near the central vein; these cells respond to Wnt signals that are provided by the adjacent central vein endothelial cells, and can give rise to all other hepatocytes to maintain liver homeostasis.

    • Bruce Wang
    • , Ludan Zhao
    •  & Roel Nusse
  • Letter |

    Little is known about how the relative proportions of stem cells and differentiated cells are regulated; basal stem/progenitor cells of the mouse airway epithelium self renew and differentiate into secretory and ciliated cells, and basal stem cells continuously send daughter cells a forward niche signal necessary for daughter cell fate maintenance.

    • Ana Pardo-Saganta
    • , Purushothama Rao Tata
    •  & Jayaraj Rajagopal
  • Article |

    Novel technology to rapidly clone patient-specific, ‘ground state’ stem cells of columnar epithelia reveals their proliferative potential, remarkably precise and origin-dependent lineage commitment as well as genomic stability, despite extensive culturing, thereby skirting limitations associated with pluripotent stem cells.

    • Xia Wang
    • , Yusuke Yamamoto
    •  & Wa Xian
  • Letter |

    Mouse hair follicles in the skin cycle between growth and regression, while maintaining a pool of stem cells for continued regeneration; here, live imaging is used to show that a combination of niche-induced stem cell apoptosis and epithelial phagocytosis underlies regression, regulating the stem cell pool.

    • Kailin R. Mesa
    • , Panteleimon Rompolas
    •  & Valentina Greco
  • Letter |

    Lineage-tracing experiments identify a rare, undifferentiated population of quiescent cells in the mouse distal lung that are activated through a Notch signalling pathway to repair the epithelium after bleomycin- or influenza-mediated injury; inappropriate Notch signalling may be a major contributor to failed regeneration within the lungs of patients with chronic lung disease.

    • Andrew E. Vaughan
    • , Alexis N. Brumwell
    •  & Harold A. Chapman
  • Letter |

    Many patients experiencing sudden loss of lung tissue somehow undergo full recovery; here this recovery is traced to a discrete population of lung stem cells that are not only essential for lung regeneration but can be cloned and then transplanted to other mice to contribute new lung tissue.

    • Wei Zuo
    • , Ting Zhang
    •  & Frank McKeon
  • Letter |

    p63 and PAX6 act to specify limbal stem or progenitor cells (LSCs), and WNT7A controls corneal epithelium differentiation through PAX6; loss of WNT7A or PAX6 induces LSCs into epithelium, and transduction of PAX6 in skin epithelial stem cells converts them to LSC-like cells and transplantation in a rabbit corneal injury model can replenish corneal epithelial cells and repair damaged corneal surface.

    • Hong Ouyang
    • , Yuanchao Xue
    •  & Kang Zhang
  • Article |

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have a lower rate of protein synthesis in vivo than most other haematopoietic cells, and both increases and decreases in the rate of protein synthesis impair HSC function, demonstrating that HSC maintenance—and hence, cellular homeostasis—requires the rate of protein synthesis to be highly regulated.

    • Robert A. J. Signer
    • , Jeffrey A. Magee
    •  & Sean J. Morrison
  • Article |

    This study shows that ageing satellite cells undergo an irreversible transition from a quiescent to a pre-senescent state that results in the loss of muscle regeneration in sarcopenia; furthermore, increased expression of p16INK4a is identified as a common feature of senescent satellite cells.

    • Pedro Sousa-Victor
    • , Susana Gutarra
    •  & Pura Muñoz-Cánoves
  • Letter |

    Fibroblasts constitute the major mesenchymal cell type in the connective tissue and their functions are remarkably diverse: here, by characterising lineages of mouse skin fibroblasts, it is shown that distinct subpopulations contribute to skin development and repair during injury.

    • Ryan R. Driskell
    • , Beate M. Lichtenberger
    •  & Fiona M. Watt
  • Article |

    An analysis of somatic tissues derived from mouse models of Down’s syndrome shows reduced self-renewal capacities in various cell types, with these defects partially dependent on triplication of the Usp16 gene; overexpression and knockout studies in human cells shows that USP16 has a role in Down’s syndrome-related proliferation defects, making this gene an attractive option for further study.

    • Maddalena Adorno
    • , Shaheen Sikandar
    •  & Michael F. Clarke
  • Letter |

    Using a CO-FISH method with single-chromosome resolution, sister chromatids of the sex chromosomes, but not autosomes, are shown to segregate nonrandomly during asymmetric cell divisions of Drosophila male germline stem cells; this suggests that it is unlikely that nonrandom sister chromatid segregation serves to protect the ‘immortal strand’ to avoid replication-induced mutations as proposed previously.

    • Swathi Yadlapalli
    •  & Yukiko M. Yamashita
  • Letter |

    Endogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a potent regulator of haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) retention in the bone marrow; inhibition of endogenous PGE2 signalling by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs results in enhanced HSC and haematopoietic progenitor cell mobility via E-prostanoid 4 (EP4) receptor antagonism.

    • Jonathan Hoggatt
    • , Khalid S. Mohammad
    •  & Louis M. Pelus
  • Letter |

    The hilum (a transitional region) of the mouse ovary is identified as a stem cell niche of the ovarian surface epithelium, and its cells are prone to malignant transformation after inactivation of common tumour suppressor genes, suggesting that they may be the origin of ovarian carcinoma.

    • Andrea Flesken-Nikitin
    • , Chang-Il Hwang
    •  & Alexander Yu. Nikitin
  • Letter |

    This study reports the identification of adult stem cells in the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke); the cells proliferate and differentiate into derivatives of multiple germ layers, and their maintenance requires a fibroblast growth factor receptor orthologue.

    • James J. Collins III
    • , Bo Wang
    •  & Phillip A. Newmark