Recurrence mechanisms of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer — a clinical perspective

Understanding the various recurrence mechanisms from a clinical perspective and implications for optimization of NMIBC oncological outcomes

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    • Standard-of-care management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) relies on surgery for low-risk localized disease and systemic treatment for poor-prognosis metastatic tumours, but patients with high-risk localized tumours and with metastatic disease that has a good-to-intermediate prognosis are in a grey area for treatment. In this Review, the authors provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on surgery and systemic treatment in the management of metastatic and localized RCC.

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      • Alexandre de la Taille
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    • The sixth edition of the WHO (World Health Organization) semen analysis manual has been released 10 years after the previous edition and includes important updates. In this Perspective article, a comprehensive overview and discussion of the newly released WHO manual are provided. Limitations of routine semen analysis-based infertility assessment and potential solutions to improve male infertility work-up are also discussed.

      • Sandro C. Esteves
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    • Since calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2) was identified as an androgen-receptor-regulated gene, important functional roles of CAMKK2 in prostate cancer progression have been shown in preclinical models. In this Perspective, the authors present evidence supporting an oncogenic role of CAMKK2, and also discuss mechanisms of regulation and emerging non-cell-autonomous roles of CAMKK2. Moreover, the potential use of CAMKK2 as a biomarker and/or therapeutic target in prostate cancer is discussed.

      • Thomas L. Pulliam
      • Pavithr Goli
      • Daniel E. Frigo
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    • In this Review, Russo and Giri describe and discuss germline testing criteria, genetic testing strategies, genetically informed screening, precision management, delivery of genetic counselling or alternative genetic services and special considerations for men with prostate cancer.

      • Jessica Russo
      • Veda N. Giri
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    • In this Review, the authors describe our current knowledge of the consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the urogenital system, discussing urological symptoms and damage to organs of the genitourinary tract induced by COVID-19 infection. Moreover, the effects of COVID-19 on male fertility and sexual health are discussed.

      • Benedikt Ebner
      • Yannic Volz
      • Giuseppe Magistro
      Review Article