Reviews & Analysis

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  • In this Review, the authors provide an overview of the clinical and pathological features of diseases caused by CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions, and propose that they represent a single underlying neuromyodegenerative syndrome with gene-dependent manifestations.

    • Zhi-Dong Zhou
    • Joseph Jankovic
    • Eng-King Tan
    Review Article
  • Two studies of the genetics of schizophrenia provide insight into somatic comorbidities and the potential of whole-genome sequencing in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but highlight the need for more work to translate genetic findings into clinical benefits.

    • Olav B. Smeland
    • Ole A. Andreassen
    News & Views
  • In this Review, the authors give an overview of the genetics of common small vessel disease, and provide insights into causal genes and the biological pathways involved, the overlap with monogenic small vessel disease, and the therapeutic implications of these factors.

    • Constance Bordes
    • Muralidharan Sargurupremraj
    • Stéphanie Debette
    Review Article
  • Traditionally, CNS diseases have been classified into early-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and late-onset neurodegenerative disorders. However, as this article highlights, we now recognize that developmental and neurodegenerative disorders can involve shared mechanisms, with some classic neurodegenerative diseases also having a neurodevelopmental component.

    • Richard A. Hickman
    • Sarah A. O’Shea
    • Wendy K. Chung
  • Rare neurological complications can occur after COVID-19 vaccination, but recent studies show that such complications are much more common after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Novel approaches to risk–benefit analysis such as Bayesian network models can integrate the latest global evidence with local factors to inform decision-making and support the global vaccination effort.

    • Colleen L. Lau
    • Ian Galea
    News & Views
  • A recent clinical trial found no effect of chronic intranasal oxytocin on social behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorders. The result is not surprising, as oxytocin facilitates social learning but does not directly cause prosocial behaviour. In future trials, oxytocin should be paired with behavioural therapy to enhance learning and improve social behaviour.

    • Charles L. Ford
    • Larry J. Young
    News & Views
  • In this Review, the authors consider how current understanding of four genetic generalized epilepsy syndromes that commonly occur in adults challenges traditional concepts about these conditions and suggests that they are not distinct but sit on a neurobiological continuum.

    • Bernd J. Vorderwülbecke
    • Britta Wandschneider
    • Martin Holtkamp
    Review Article
  • A new study found methylphenidate to be effective in treating apathy in individuals with Alzheimer disease. At a time when the recent aducanumab approval is focusing attention on the promise of disease-modifying therapies, the new findings highlight the importance of developing better symptomatic treatment options for individuals with psychiatric disorders of Alzheimer disease.

    • Jeffrey Cummings
    News & Views
  • The neurological deficits caused by COVID-19, which were first reported in the early months of 2020, continue to intrigue neurologists and health-care professionals worldwide. As two new studies highlight, these manifestations are frequent and are expected to increase the burden of morbidity and mortality in the acute and chronic phases of COVID-19.

    • Abdul Mannan Baig
    News & Views
  • Here, the authors summarize the evidence concerning the neurological health of individuals affected by the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks and present the outcome of a meeting convened by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health that aimed to generate recommendations for future research in this population.

    • Sean A. P. Clouston
    • Charles B. Hall
    • Benjamin J. Luft
  • In this Review, Nassan and Videnovic discuss the alterations to the circadian system that occur in neurodegenerative disorders and highlight future directions for research in the field, including opportunities for the development of circadian-based therapeutic interventions.

    • Malik Nassan
    • Aleksandar Videnovic
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Li-Huei Tsai and colleagues discuss the ongoing work towards the generation of more physiological in vitro models of Alzheimer disease (AD), with a particular focus on the modelling of AD-related changes to the blood–brain barrier, myelination, neuroinflammation and neuronal circuits.

    • Joel W. Blanchard
    • Matheus B. Victor
    • Li-Huei Tsai
    Review Article
  • Despite substantial progress in the development of disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS), the therapeutic options for progressive MS (PMS) remain limited. The authors present criteria for therapeutic success in PMS and consider the extent to which current drugs meet these criteria.

    • Heather Y. F. Yong
    • V. Wee Yong
    Review Article
  • The close connection between epileptic networks and the autonomic nervous system is illustrated by a range of autonomic manifestations during a seizure. This article reviews the spectrum and diagnostic value of these manifestations, focusing on presentations that could contribute to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    • Roland D. Thijs
    • Philippe Ryvlin
    • Rainer Surges
    Review Article
  • Clinical trials have led to the approval of new targeted therapies for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. In this Review, Pittock et al. discuss the pathophysiological rationale for these drugs, the methodology and outcomes of the trials, and their implications for clinical practice.

    • Sean J. Pittock
    • Anastasia Zekeridou
    • Brian G. Weinshenker
    Review Article
  • Detailed immunological analysis in a new study provides insight into the mechanisms of immune responses after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in people who are receiving B cell-depleting therapy for multiple sclerosis. The findings have implications for clinical practice, but more questions about SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and immunosuppression remain.

    • Thomas Berger
    • Barbara Kornek
    News & Views
  • The prevalence of dementia in India is expected to increase. Here, the authors review the existing data on dementia in India, discuss areas for future research and highlight the importance of developing appropriate public health strategies to tackle the growing dementia burden.

    • Vijayalakshmi Ravindranath
    • Jonas S. Sundarakumar
    Review Article
  • Two-thirds of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) are women, and sex differences in AD pathology have been observed, yet little is known about the role of sex chromosomes in AD. New research suggests that X-linked gene expression modifies AD risk in a sex-specific manner. This knowledge could aid the development of precision medicine approaches for AD.

    • Maria Teresa Ferretti
    • Antonella Santuccione Chadha
    News & Views