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Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital conditions characterized by atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal or anatomical sex. New technologies are rapidly generating vast amounts of new data on the pathogenesis of DSDs. However, the diagnosis and management of patients with DSDs remains challenging. This Nature Reviews Endocrinology collection on DSDs includes articles from leading experts in the field, covering topics from pathogenesis and management to the transition from paediatric care to adult care.
This Focus issue includes specially commissioned articles that provide an overview of the different uses of growth hormone (GH) therapy, including the treatment of children with idiopathic short stature and adult GH deficiency, as well as insights into the diagnosis and management of these disorders. Additional topics covered include the effects of altered GH signalling on obesity and lifespan, and the risks and benefits of off-label use of recombinant human GH to treat obesity and as an antiageing therapeutic.
This Focus issue includes five specially commissioned articles that provide an overview of the diagnosis and management of different endocrine disorders that affect an ageing population, and discuss the risks and benefits of certain treatment options. The topics covered include advances in our understanding of thyroid dysfunction in the elderly, the benefits and risks of postmenopausal hormone therapy, changes in pituitary function in the elderly, the interplay between oxidative stress and the endocrine system, and new therapeutic strategies against cognitive decline in ageing women.
Obesity is a major public health problem for which there are few approved medical therapies. Considerable interest exists in the outcome of new drug trials, understanding the mechanisms of obesity and the search for new potential therapeutic targets. Bariatric surgery is a popular obesity therapy and several procedures exist, including gastric bypass, gastric banding and sleeve gastrectomy. Additional approaches, such as adipose tissue transplantation and stem-cell therapy, have also been explored. This article collection from Nature Reviews EndocrinologyandNature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatologyprovides a comprehensive overview of the plethora of current and future approaches to treating obesity.
This Focus issue on endocrine disorders in pregnancy includes specially commissioned articles that outline the pathophysiology of different endocrine disorders that affect pregnancy and offspring outcomes and discuss optimal clinical management strategies. The topics covered were identified by leaders in the field as important areas in research and clinical practice.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic. Patients with this chronic disease—which they typically have for 20–40 years—have an increased risk of cardiovascular events. During the past few years, advances in drug development and the completion of several large-scale, randomized controlled trials have helped to provide strategies to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in this group of patients. This collection of articles from Nature Reviews CardiologyandNature Reviews Endocrinologyprovides a state-of-the-art overview of current management strategies to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and will be a welcome resource to researchers and clinicians alike.
Hypertension is a major, worldwide health problem owing to its high prevalence and association with increased morbidity and mortality. This collection of articles from Nature Reviews Cardiology,Nature Reviews NephrologyandNature Reviews Endocrinologycomprises a selection of 11 Reviews that discuss advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of hypertension and of the assessment, management and consequences of prehypertension and hypertension, as well as future directions for prevention and treatment.
This Collection of articles from Nature Reviews EndocrinologyandNature Reviews Rheumatologycovers the interesting developments within the field of osteoporosis research and includes articles on the clinical assessment of patients with osteoporosis, approaches for the prevention and management of this disease, as well as the impact of osteoporosis on health and economics worldwide.
Celiac disease is an intestinal inflammatory disorder that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals and causes intolerance to wheat protein gluten and related proteins (prolamines) that are contained in barley and rye. Histologically, the small bowel mucosa in celiac disease shows villous atrophy (lost of villi), crypt hyperplasia and lymphocyte infiltration. To allow better understand the histological damage that occurs during mucosal changes Marsh proposed a series of stages to aid diagnostics: Marsh I represents lymphocytic enteritis, Marsh II represents lymphocytic enteritis with crypt hyperplasia, and Marsh III represents partial (a), subtotal (b) and total (c) villous atrophy. These changes are accompanied by a gradual increase in the number of T cells and activation of immunoregulatory counteractions in the diseased mucosa. The March 2011 special issue on celiac sprue and mucosal immunity presents some of the latest advances in celiac disease diagnostics; the web focus further expands our understanding of this inflammatory disorder through a collection of recent articles from across Springer Nature.
This Focus issue on pituitary tumors includes specially commissioned articles that translate the latest pathogenesis and management insights into clinical practice. Identified by leaders in the field as promising areas in pituitary research, the Focus issue provides a valuable and cutting-edge resource for clinicians and researchers alike.
This Focus issue on thyroid cancer includes specially commissioned articles discussing the pathophysiology of thyroid neoplasia and current and future clinical management strategies. The topics covered were identified by leaders in the field as promising areas in thyroid cancer research and clinical practice, making the Focus issue a valuable resource for investigators and practitioners alike.
This Focus on noninsulin therapies for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) includes a series of specially commissioned articles that introduce some novel approaches to the prevention and treatment of this chronic condition. Identified by the leaders in the field as promising areas in diabetes research, the Focus provides a valuable resource for clinicians and researchers alike.