Reviews & Analysis

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  • This PrimeView highlights the pathophysiology of achalasia and summarizes its epidemiology, diagnosis and management. It accompanies the Primer on this topic by Savarino and colleagues.

    PrimeView
  • Achalasia is a disorder of the oesophageal smooth muscle characterized by impaired lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation and absent or spastic oesophageal body contractions. This Primer reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of achalasia, as well as patient quality of life and areas for further research.

    • Edoardo Savarino
    • Shobna Bhatia
    • C. Prakash Gyawali
    Primer
  • This PrimeView highlights the pathogenesis of bone stress injuries and summarizes epidemiology, diagnosis and management. It accompanies the Primer on this topic by Tenforde and colleagues.

    PrimeView
  • Bone stress injuries, commonly referred to as stress reactions or stress fractures, result from repeated overloading of bone and are thought to involve an imbalance in microdamage formation and repair. This Primer provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathobiology, risk factors, diagnostic approaches, treatments and consequences of bone stress injuries.

    • Tim Hoenig
    • Kathryn E. Ackerman
    • Stuart J. Warden
    Primer
  • This PrimeView highlights the pathogenesis of hypothalamic syndrome, and summarizes the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of this disorder. It accompanies the Primer article on this topic by Müller an colleagues.

    PrimeView
  • Hypothalamic syndrome is a rare disorder caused by injury to the hypothalamus from various diseases or their treatment. This Primer provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of the syndrome, as well as the challenges in preventing hypothalamic injury and treating its sequelae.

    • Hermann L. Müller
    • Maithé Tauber
    • Hanneke M. van Santen
    Primer
  • This PrimeView highlights the epidemiology of atrial fibrillation and summarizes pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. It accompanies the Primer on this topic by Brundel and colleagues.

    PrimeView
  • Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is increasing in prevalence as populations age. This Primer provides an overview of AF epidemiology, the mechanisms underlying electropathology in AF, and the diagnostic approaches and treatments, and highlights important directions to improve understanding and management of AF in co-creation with patients.

    • Bianca J. J. M. Brundel
    • Xun Ai
    • Natasja M. S. de Groot
    Primer
  • This PrimeView highlights the prevention of tobacco and nicotine use, and accompanies the Primer article on this topic by Le Foll et al.

    PrimeView
  • This Primer describes the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and management of tobacco use and tobacco use disorder. Moreover, this Primer discusses the quality of life issues associated with tobacco use and provides an overview of future research avenues for this field.

    • Bernard Le Foll
    • Megan E. Piper
    • Wayne D. Hall
    Primer
  • This PrimeView highlights the mechanisms of binge eating disorder, a newly classified eating disorder that is characterized by episodes of binge eating and loss of control of eating behaviour.

    PrimeView
  • Binge eating disorder is an eating disorder that is characterized by loss of control of eating behaviour and episodes of eating very large amounts of food. This Primer discusses the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of binge eating disorder.

    • Katrin E. Giel
    • Cynthia M. Bulik
    • Stephan Zipfel
    Primer
  • This PrimeView highlights the mechanisms of hypertensive eye disease and accompanies the Primer article on this topic by Wong et al.

    PrimeView
  • Hypertensive eye disease (HED) refers to dieases of the eye that are associated with acute or chronic elevations in blood pressure. This Primer discusses the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of HED.

    • Carol Y. Cheung
    • Valérie Biousse
    • Tien Y. Wong
    Primer
  • This PrimeView highlights the mechanisms of childhood stroke and accompanies the Primer article on childhood stroke by Wildgruber et al.

    PrimeView
  • This Primer summarizes the mechanisms, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of stroke in children (that is, stroke occurring in those aged between 29 days and 18 years).

    • Peter B. Sporns
    • Heather J. Fullerton
    • Moritz Wildgruber
    Primer
  • The association between cancer and a state of increased coagulability results in an elevated risk of venous thromboembolism (which includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism), a severe co-morbidity that can lead to worsened survival.

    • Alok A. Khorana
    • Nigel Mackman
    • Agnes Y. Y. Lee
    Primer
  • This PrimeView highlights the mechanisms and pathophysiology of classic and exertional heatstroke and summarizes epidemiology, diagnosis and management. It accompanies the Primer on this topic by Bouchama and colleagues.

    PrimeView
  • Heatstroke is a life-threatening illness typically associated with an uncontrolled rise in core body temperature and central nervous system dysfunction. This Primer describes its epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, preventive and therapeutic strategies, as well as long-term complications and areas for future research.

    • Abderrezak Bouchama
    • Bisher Abuyassin
    • Lisa R. Leon
    Primer