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    This November, world leaders will meet in Glasgow, UK for the 26th Conference of the Parties (COP26) to discuss action on the Paris Agreement and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

    Image: Valentina Monaco/Springer Nature Limited
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    The 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann and Giorgio Parisi for their advances in complex physical systems. In

    Image: Springer Nature/The Nobel Foundation/Imagesource
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    International agreements like the Montreal Protocol and the Kigali Amendment have been largely successful in reducing the emissions of ozone depleting substances.

    Image: Panther Media GmbH / Alamy Stock Photo
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    Land-cover change can have profound impacts on the Earth system. Unsustainable land use, driven by urban and agricultural expansion, not only causes important impacts on climate but also leads to ecosystem and environmental degradation.

    Image: Cícero Castro / Alamy Stock Photo
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    Megathrusts, faults at the interface between one tectonic plate overriding another, can generate large earthquakes and tsunamis.

    Image: Larry Geddis / Alamy Stock Photo
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    When nature strikes with full force, there is often little that can be done against.

    Image: Sebastian Mueller
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    The use and development of sophisticated computing capabilities to analyse and solve real-world, challenging problems has undoubtedly revolutionized the way researchers do science.

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    Close to the end of its mission, the Dawn spacecraft performed high resolution observations of Occator crater at Ceres in order to study its bright points (faculae) at unprecedented detail. These observations establish Ceres as an ocean world.

    Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA/PSI/LPI
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    Soil organic carbon is a large component of the global carbon cycle.

    Image: Dahlhaus Kniese / Alamy Stock Photo
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    Recent years have been an exciting time to unravel the mysteries of planetary interiors. A number of ongoing international space missions, ever evolving new technologies and numerical methods, and re-analysis of existing data are allowing us to gain new insights on the internal structures of planetary bodies.

    Image: From closest to furthest (or right to left) respectively: Jupiter (Juno perijove 6, Credit:NASA/SwRI/MSSS/Gerald Eichstädt/Seán Doran); Saturn during the great storm of 2010–2011 (Cassini, Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute); Uranus and Neptune (Hubble, Credits: NASA/ESA/A. Simon (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), and M.H. Wong and A. Hsu (University of California, Berkeley)).
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    NASA’s InSight lander arrived on Mars in late 2018. Primarily a geophysics mission, InSight aims to constrain the planet’s present-day geologic activity and its interior evolution.

    Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech