Review Articles

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  • The current state of programmable photonic integrated circuits is discussed, including recent developments in their building blocks, circuit architectures, electronic control and programming strategies, as well as different application spaces.

    • Wim Bogaerts
    • Daniel Pérez
    • Andrea Melloni
    Review Article
  • The findings of a World Health Organization expert working group that is developing animal models to test vaccines and therapeutic agents for the treatment of COVID-19, and their relevance for preclinical testing, are reviewed.

    • César Muñoz-Fontela
    • William E. Dowling
    • Dan H. Barouch
    Review Article
  • The development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 is reviewed, including an overview of the development process, the different types of vaccine candidate, and data from animal studies as well as phase I and II clinical trials in humans.

    • Florian Krammer
    Review Article
  • This Review describes the interplay between host genetics, host immunity and the gut microbiome in the modulation of colorectal cancer, and discusses the role of specific bacterial species and metabolites alongside technological advances that will facilitate more in-depth investigation of the microbiome in disease.

    • Alina Janney
    • Fiona Powrie
    • Elizabeth H. Mann
    Review Article
  • NumPy is the primary array programming library for Python; here its fundamental concepts are reviewed and its evolution into a flexible interoperability layer between increasingly specialized computational libraries is discussed.

    • Charles R. Harris
    • K. Jarrod Millman
    • Travis E. Oliphant
    Review Article Open Access
  • Breakthroughs in artificial intelligence and low-cost, contactless sensors have given rise to an ambient intelligence that can potentially improve the physical execution of healthcare delivery, if used in a thoughtful manner.

    • Albert Haque
    • Arnold Milstein
    • Li Fei-Fei
    Review Article
  • This Review explores the role of viscoelasticity of tissues and extracellular matrices in cell–matrix interactions and mechanotransduction and the potential utility of viscoelastic biomaterials in regenerative medicine.

    • Ovijit Chaudhuri
    • Justin Cooper-White
    • Vivek B. Shenoy
    Review Article
  • The development and future prospects of prospectively designed multispecific drugs, which have the potential to transform the biopharmaceutical industry by enabling the targeting of currently inaccessible components of the proteome, are reviewed.

    • Raymond J. Deshaies
    Review Article
  • Analyses of the recovery of marine populations, habitats and ecosystems following past conservation interventions indicate that substantial recovery of the abundance, structure and function of marine life could be achieved by 2050 if major pressures, including climate change, are mitigated.

    • Carlos M. Duarte
    • Susana Agusti
    • Boris Worm
    Review Article
  • This Review examines inflammatory bowel disease in the context of human genetics studies that help to identify pathways that regulate homeostasis of the mucosal immune system and discusses future prospects for disease-subtype classification and therapeutic intervention.

    • Daniel B. Graham
    • Ramnik J. Xavier
    Review Article
  • The scientific, technical and ethical aspects of using CRISPR technology for therapeutic applications in humans are discussed, highlighting both opportunities and challenges of this technology to treat, cure and prevent genetic disease.

    • Jennifer A. Doudna
    Review Article
  • Understanding the dynamics between bacteria and bacteriophages could enable the development of phage-based therapies and biotechnological tools and provide insights into the ecology and evolution of these microorganisms.

    • Hannah G. Hampton
    • Bridget N. J. Watson
    • Peter C. Fineran
    Review Article
  • This Review describes progress in the study of human genetics, in which rapid advances in technology, foundational genomic resources and analytical tools have contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for many rare and common diseases and to preventative and therapeutic strategies for many of these conditions.

    • Melina Claussnitzer
    • Judy H. Cho
    • Mark I. McCarthy
    Review Article
  • A Review of studies into insulin resistance and hepatic gluconeogenesis associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    • Michael Roden
    • Gerald I. Shulman
    Review Article
  • A review of drug resistance in cancer analyses each biological determinant of resistance separately and discusses existing and new therapeutic strategies to combat the problem as a whole.

    • Neil Vasan
    • José Baselga
    • David M. Hyman
    Review Article
  • An overview of the effects of vaccines on global morbidity and mortality, vaccine safety issues, and the hurdles involved in proceeding from vaccine discovery to successful implementation.

    • Peter Piot
    • Heidi J. Larson
    • Beate Kampmann
    Review Article