Review Articles

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  • The potential origins and global spread of SARS-CoV-2, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and the importance of genomic surveillance for the control of the COVID-19 pandemic are discussed.

    • Juan Li
    • Shengjie Lai
    • Weifeng Shi
    Review Article
  • This Review discusses the state of the art of interface optics—including refractive optics, meta-optics and moiré engineering—for the control of van der Waals polaritons.

    • Qing Zhang
    • Guangwei Hu
    • Cheng-Wei Qiu
    Review Article
  • Cratons are the oldest parts of the Earth’s continents; this Review concludes that the production of widespread, thick and strong lithosphere via the process of orogenic thickening was fundamental to the eventual emergence of extensive continental landmasses.

    • D. Graham Pearson
    • James M. Scott
    • Peter B. Kelemen
    Review Article
  • This Review outlines the gene and protein expression strategies used by viruses to expand the efficiency of their coding and regulatory sequences, and the implications of these mechanisms for developing antiviral agents.

    • Jessica Sook Yuin Ho
    • Zeyu Zhu
    • Ivan Marazzi
    Review Article
  • This Review examines the evidence showing that DNA damage is associated with ageing phenotypes, suggesting that it may have a central role as the cause of ageing.

    • Björn Schumacher
    • Joris Pothof
    • Jan H. J. Hoeijmakers
    Review Article
  • This Review discusses recent research that has transformed our understanding of the biology of atherosclerosis, and examines its implications for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    • Peter Libby
    Review Article
  • Ongoing global warming is likely to cause tipping point thresholds to be passed, but an abrupt system change can still be avoided if the warming is reversed quickly relative to the timescale of the tipping element.

    • Paul D. L. Ritchie
    • Joseph J. Clarke
    • Chris Huntingford
    Review Article
  • The volume of global aquaculture production has tripled since 2000 with positive trends in environmental performance, but the sector faces mounting challenges including pathogen management, pollution, climate change, and increasing dependence on land-based resource systems.

    • Rosamond L. Naylor
    • Ronald W. Hardy
    • Max Troell
    Review Article
  • This Review proposes an interdisciplinary framework for researching climate–society interactions that focuses on the mechanisms through which climate change has influenced societies, and the uncertainties of discerning this influence across different spatiotemporal scales.

    • Dagomar Degroot
    • Kevin Anchukaitis
    • Natale Zappia
    Review Article
  • A Review describes the three key phases that define the origins of modern human ancestry, and highlights the importance of analysing both palaeoanthropological and genomic records to further improve our understanding of our evolutionary history.

    • Anders Bergström
    • Chris Stringer
    • Pontus Skoglund
    Review Article
  • The functional and regulatory aspects of the ‘mitochondrial divisome’ are separated into core and accessory machinery, thus providing a mechanistic understanding of the process of mitochondrial fission.

    • Felix Kraus
    • Krishnendu Roy
    • Michael T. Ryan
    Review Article
  • The factors affecting how and why supernovae occur are discussed, and the current status of core-collapse supernova explosion theory is reviewed.

    • A. Burrows
    • D. Vartanyan
    Review Article
  • This review discusses how single-cell profiling and other technological advances are increasing our understanding of the mechanisms of fibrosis, thereby accelerating the discovery, development and testing of new treatments.

    • Neil C. Henderson
    • Florian Rieder
    • Thomas A. Wynn
    Review Article