Reviews & Analysis

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  • Owing to the growing volumes of data from high-energy physics experiments, modern deep learning methods are playing an increasingly important role in all aspects of data taking and analysis. This Review provides an overview of key developments, with a focus on the search for physics beyond the standard model.

    • Georgia Karagiorgi
    • Gregor Kasieczka
    • David Shih
    Review Article
  • The polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) may shed light on the nature of dark matter and dark energy, and on the origin of all structures in the Universe. Discovering a signature of such new physics in the CMB will require new observational and calibration strategies for future CMB experiments.

    • Eiichiro Komatsu
    Review Article
  • Living cells use geometric, biochemical and mechanical guiding cues to control intracellular protein patterns that regulate many vital functions. This Review discusses mechanisms of pattern guidance unveiled in living cells and how to study them from a physics perspective.

    • Tom Burkart
    • Manon C. Wigbers
    • Erwin Frey
    Review Article
  • The standard Hamiltonian approach to quantum field theory violates Poincaré invariance, leading to predictions with artificial dynamical effects and potentially obscuring the fundamental description of a physical system. This Perspective explains how such issues are avoided by using light-front Hamiltonian quantization.

    • Stanley J. Brodsky
    • Alexandre Deur
    • Craig D. Roberts
  • Active matter encompasses various non-equilibrium systems in which individual constituents convert energy into non-conservative forces or motion at the microscale. This Review provides an elementary introduction to the role of topology in active matter through experimentally relevant examples.

    • Suraj Shankar
    • Anton Souslov
    • Vincenzo Vitelli
    Review Article
  • Minimizing the energy of the Ising model is a prototypical combinatorial optimization problem, ubiquitous in our increasingly automated world. This Review surveys Ising machines — special-purpose hardware solvers for this problem — and examines the various operating principles and compares their performance.

    • Naeimeh Mohseni
    • Peter L. McMahon
    • Tim Byrnes
    Review Article
  • Polaritonics is the physics of strongly coupled light–matter states that studies condensates and superfluids of bosonic quasiparticles in solid-state systems. Coherent flows of exciton–polaritons can be used for classical and quantum information processing, offering advantages of full optical control and read-out.

    • Alexey Kavokin
    • Timothy C. H. Liew
    • Sven Hoefling
    Review Article
  • Electric-double-layer transistors and ionic field-effect transistors enable continuous tuning of carrier densities in 2D superconductors, which are essential for studying novel quantum phenomena and finding new high-temperature superconductors. This Review summarizes recent advances and future development paths for electric-field-gated superconductivity in various ultrathin superconducting materials, including iron-based superconductors, transition-metal dichalcogenides, honeycomb bilayer superconductors and cuprates.

    • Peng Liu
    • Bin Lei
    • Xiaolin Wang
    Technical Review
  • Finding the most appropriate machine learning algorithm for the analysis of any given scientific dataset is currently challenging, but new machine learning benchmarks for science are being developed to help.

    • Jeyan Thiyagalingam
    • Mallikarjun Shankar
    • Tony Hey
  • Multi-messenger observations of gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation directly probe the synthesis of heavy elements in the Universe. This Review summarizes recent results and charts future challenges and opportunities for identifying the astrophysical origin of roughly half of the elements heavier than iron.

    • Daniel M. Siegel
    Review Article
  • New approaches to integrate high-dimensional recordings of brain activity with single-neuron resolution with simultaneous recordings of natural animal behaviour enable the study of brain-wide activity in small animals including worms, flies and fish during behaviours and decision-making. This Review surveys experimental and theoretical approaches that have opened this area of systems neuroscience.

    • Albert Lin
    • Daniel Witvliet
    • Vivek Venkatachalam
    Review Article
  • Mastering thermal conductivities of materials under pressure is extremely important for managing thermal processes, understanding the thermal transport mechanisms and for potential technological applications. This Review surveys the progresses in technique developments, research results and scientific implications in this field.

    • Yan Zhou
    • Zuo-Yuan Dong
    • Xiao-Jia Chen
    Review Article
  • Graphene oxide (GO) has attracted intensive research interest, owing to remarkable physicochemical properties. Nevertheless, its high chemical reactivity and low stability may lead to uncontrolled GO derivatives. The chemistry of GO can be controlled by selective derivatization of the oxygenated groups and C=C bonds and by appropriate characterization.

    • Shi Guo
    • Slaven Garaj
    • Cécilia Ménard-Moyon
    Review Article
  • The observation of gravitational waves emitted in the merger of neutron stars and the observations of X-rays emitted by hotspots on their surfaces are beginning to reveal nuclear physics insights about these compact objects.

    • Nicolás Yunes
    • M. Coleman Miller
    • Kent Yagi
    Review Article
  • Magnetic reconnection explosively releases stored magnetic energy in astrophysical plasmas. Thanks to advances in observations, exascale computing and multiscale experiments, it will be possible to solve outstanding physics problems, including the immense separation between global and dissipation scales, reconnection onset and particle acceleration.

    • Hantao Ji
    • William Daughton
    • Jongsoo Yoo
  • Much of the rich phenomenology of active matter can be traced back to violations of time-reversal symmetry and departure from Boltzmann statistics. This Review disentangles these nonequilibrium signatures for interacting and dilute systems, in the presence of obstacles and external potentials.

    • J. O’Byrne
    • Y. Kafri
    • F. van Wijland
    Review Article
  • Quantum photonics offers an integrated and scalable approach to quantum information processing and communication. This article summarizes the state of the art and provides an outlook on future challenges and opportunities for quantum photonics based on 2D materials.

    • Mikko Turunen
    • Mauro Brotons-Gisbert
    • Brian D. Gerardot
    Review Article
  • Spintronic properties of layered materials combining magnetism and strong spin–orbit coupling can be tailored by proper optimization of chemical interactions and structural material symmetries. This Review draws a route to achieving best performing material design for reaching the upper limit of spin–orbit torque efficiency in switching magnetization.

    • Hidekazu Kurebayashi
    • Jose H. Garcia
    • Stephan Roche
    Review Article
  • Photonics is one of the key platforms for emerging quantum technologies, but its full potential can only be harnessed by exploiting miniaturization via on-chip integration. This Roadmap charts new directions and discusses the challenges associated with the hybrid integration of a variety of materials, devices and components.

    • Emanuele Pelucchi
    • Giorgos Fagas
    • Klaus D. Jöns
  • In 2021, the most precise measurement of the muon’s anomalous magnetic moment and a new high-precision lattice quantum chromodynamics calculation have in turn kindled, then dimmed, hopes for seeing signs of new physics. State-of-the-art calculations, made possible by a series of recent advances, will be key to understanding these conflicting results.

    • Christoph Lehner
    Year in Review