This Review focuses on physiological and pathological aspects of the hormonal regulation of biomineralization, which is crucial for skeletal health during adulthood, fetal and neonatal development and pregnancy. The role of mineral intake, serum concentrations of mineral and hormonal regulators of biomineralization are highlighted.
Several shared mechanisms govern the development of bone and teeth. This Review summarizes these shared pathways and discusses the disorders that are related to both bone and teeth.
This Review considers the principal regulators of the processes of biomineralization and crystallization in human physiology. In addition, disorders of biomineralization are discussed, including bone disorders and disorders of extraskeletal mineralization.
Understanding mineralized tissues, such as bone and cartilage, in health and disease requires a thorough knowledge of their structures. This Perspective proposes a new imaging and characterization strategy for mineralized tissue research that utilizes focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy.