Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Exploring the landscape of immune responses to influenza infection and vaccination


The antibody landscape after H3N2 vaccination may be shaped largely by recent infections; further exploration of immune dynamics could inform influenza vaccination strategies.

Your institute does not have access to this article

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Map of the HA landscape to a panel of H3N2 viruses (1968–2018) in a household cohort study.


  1. Gostic, K. M., Ambrose, M., Worobey, M. & Lloyd-Smith, J. O. Science 354, 722–726 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Belongia, E. A. et al. Expert Rev. Vaccines 16, 1–14 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Monto, A. S., Malosh, R. E., Petrie, J. G. & Martin, E. T. J. Infect. Dis. 215, 1782–1788 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Smith, D. J., Forrest, S., Ackley, D. H. & Perelson, A. S. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 96, 14001–14006 (1999).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Skowronski, D. M. et al. J. Infect. Dis. 215, 1059–1099 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Francis, T. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 104, 572–578 (1960).

    Google Scholar 

  7. Music, N. et al. NPJ Vaccines 4, 28 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Auladell, M. et al. Nat. Med. (2022).

  9. Bull, M. B., Cohen, C. A., Leung, N. H. L. & Valkenburg, S. A. Viruses 13, 1779 (2021).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Gouma, S. et al. Nat. Commun. 11, 4566 (2020).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Auladell, M. et al. Front. Immunol. 10, 1400 (2019).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Boyoglu-Barnum, S. et al. Nature 592, 623–628 (2021).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Andrews, S. F. et al. Nat. Med. (2022).

  14. Houser, K. V. et al. Nat. Med. (2022).

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



S.A.V. and L.L.M.P. wrote and approved the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Leo L. M. Poon.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

L.L.M.P. holds patents for influenza vaccines.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Valkenburg, S.A., Poon, L.L.M. Exploring the landscape of immune responses to influenza infection and vaccination. Nat Med 28, 239–240 (2022).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing