Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain
the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in
Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles
(1) P. aer = P. aeruginosa, wildtype = PAO1, efflux mutant = PAO1 ΔmexABCDXY.; E. coli wildtype = ATCC 25922, efflux mutant = ATCC25922 ΔtolC. Values shown are the mode of at least 3 independent biological replicates. (2) Cidality is measured by the ratio of the minimal concentration required for bacterial killing (MBC) vs. that required for inhibition of growth (MIC) as described in Methods. Values shown are the mode of 3 independent biological replicates. (3) Inoculum-dependent MIC increase per log10 CFU/ml. Values shown are the mode of 3 independent biological replicates. (4) Average frequency of spontaneous resistance at 4X MIC, tested twice independently in 3 P. aeruginosa isolates (PAO1, ATCC 27853 and ARC3506) and E. coli ATCC 25922. (5) Second-order rate constants for the reaction of compounds with PBPs (n = number of replicates). (6) NT = not tested (7) same result observed in two additional clinical isolates each of K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii (each tested once).