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Comparison of the November to January 2019–2020 average prior and posterior CO2 fire emissions (in Tg CO2) calculated from the five CO emissions estimates over Southeast Australia. The November to January ± 1σ standard deviations are derived from the assumed error variances and from the scaling uncertainty (in going from CO to CO2 with an EFR of 14.4 ± 1.9; see equations (8) to (14) in the Supplementary Information). The prior estimates in parentheses represent the inventory flux with the EFR scaling but without the adjustment of zero emissions. The final row displays the model/inversion ensemble average and ± 1σ standard deviations that depict the variability across the five model estimates.