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Promises and prospects of two-dimensional transistors


Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have attracted tremendous interest as atomically thin channels that could facilitate continued transistor scaling. However, despite many proof-of-concept demonstrations, the full potential of 2D transistors has yet to be determined. To this end, the fundamental merits and technological limits of 2D transistors need a critical assessment and objective projection. Here we review the promise and current status of 2D transistors, and emphasize that widely used device parameters (such as carrier mobility and contact resistance) could be frequently misestimated or misinterpreted, and may not be the most reliable performance metrics for benchmarking 2D transistors. We suggest that the saturation or on-state current density, especially in the short-channel limit, could provide a more reliable measure for assessing the potential of diverse 2D semiconductors, and should be applied for cross-checking different studies, especially when milestone performance metrics are claimed. We also summarize the key technical challenges in optimizing the channels, contacts, dielectrics and substrates and outline potential pathways to push the performance limit of 2D transistors. We conclude with an overview of the critical technical targets, the key technological obstacles to the ‘lab-to-fab’ transition and the potential opportunities arising from the use of these atomically thin semiconductors.

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Fig. 1: Body thickness scaling in FETs.
Fig. 2: Comparison of material properties of 3D and 2D semiconductors.
Fig. 3: Pitfalls in the determination of mobility and contact resistance.
Fig. 4: Lab-to-fab transition and prospects for industry application.

Data availability

The data that support the plots within this paper are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.


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Y.L. and Xiangfeng Duan co-wrote the manuscript with input and comments from all authors.

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Correspondence to Xiangfeng Duan.

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Peer review information Nature thanks Deji Akinwande, Quentin Smets and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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Liu, Y., Duan, X., Shin, HJ. et al. Promises and prospects of two-dimensional transistors. Nature 591, 43–53 (2021).

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