Growing interest in quantum computing for practical applications has led to a surge in the availability of programmable machines for executing quantum algorithms1,2. Present-day photonic quantum computers3,4,5,6,7 have been limited either to non-deterministic operation, low photon numbers and rates, or fixed random gate sequences. Here we introduce a full-stack hardware−software system for executing many-photon quantum circuit operations using integrated nanophotonics: a programmable chip, operating at room temperature and interfaced with a fully automated control system. The system enables remote users to execute quantum algorithms that require up to eight modes of strongly squeezed vacuum initialized as two-mode squeezed states in single temporal modes, a fully general and programmable four-mode interferometer, and photon number-resolving readout on all outputs. Detection of multi-photon events with photon numbers and rates exceeding any previous programmable quantum optical demonstration is made possible by strong squeezing and high sampling rates. We verify the non-classicality of the device output, and use the platform to carry out proof-of-principle demonstrations of three quantum algorithms: Gaussian boson sampling, molecular vibronic spectra and graph similarity8. These demonstrations validate the platform as a launchpad for scaling photonic technologies for quantum information processing.
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All data underlying the findings of this work are available upon request from the authors.
Codes used for data analysis in this work are available upon request from the authors. The Supplementary Information contains example Strawberry Fields code, parameters of the theoretical model, and interferometer unitaries used in the demonstrations.
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Arrazola, J.M., Bergholm, V., Brádler, K. et al. Quantum circuits with many photons on a programmable nanophotonic chip. Nature 591, 54–60 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03202-1