Tremendous progress in nanotechnology has enabled advances in the use of luminescent nanomaterials in imaging, sensing and photonic devices. This translational process relies on controlling the photophysical properties of the building block, that is, single luminescent nanoparticles. In this Review, we highlight the importance of single-particle spectroscopy in revealing the diverse optical properties and functionalities of nanomaterials, and compare it with ensemble fluorescence spectroscopy. The information provided by this technique has guided materials science in tailoring the synthesis of nanomaterials to achieve optical uniformity and to develop novel applications. We discuss the opportunities and challenges that arise from pushing the resolution limit, integrating measurement and manipulation modalities, and establishing the relationship between the structure and functionality of single nanoparticles.
This is a preview of subscription content
Subscription info for Chinese customers
We have a dedicated website for our Chinese customers. Please go to naturechina.com to subscribe to this journal.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Feynman, R. P. There’s plenty of room at the bottom. Eng. Sci. 23, 22–36 (1960).
Akimov, A. V. et al. Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots. Nature 450, 402–406 (2007).
Ropp, C. et al. Nanoscale imaging and spontaneous emission control with a single nano-positioned quantum dot. Nat. Commun. 4, 1447 (2013).
Geiselmann, M. et al. Three-dimensional optical manipulation of a single electron spin. Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 175–179 (2013). This work demonstrated the deterministic trapping and three-dimensional manipulation of single nanodiamonds using optical tweezers.
Rittweger, E., Han, K. Y., Irvine, S. E., Eggeling, C. & Hell, S. W. STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution. Nat. Photon. 3, 144–147 (2009).
Hanne, J. et al. STED nanoscopy with fluorescent quantum dots. Nat. Commun. 6, 7127 (2015).
Liu, Y. et al. Amplified stimulated emission in upconversion nanoparticles for super-resolution nanoscopy. Nature 543, 229–233 (2017). This work developed the upconversion-stimulated emission depletion technique to resolve adjacent small particles with a resolution of 28 nm.
Wang, X., Zhuang, J., Peng, Q. & Li, Y. A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis. Nature 437, 121–124 (2005).
Mahler, B. et al. Towards non-blinking colloidal quantum dots. Nat. Mater. 7, 659–664 (2008).
Wang, F. et al. Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping. Nature 463, 1061–1065 (2010).
Chen, O. et al. Compact high-quality CdSe-CdS core-shell nanocrystals with narrow emission linewidths and suppressed blinking. Nat. Mater. 12, 445–451 (2013). This was the first report of the synthesis of high-quality CdSe/CdS core–shell nanocrystals with suppressed blinking in an optimized process that maintained a slow growth rate of the shell.
Chang, Y.-R. et al. Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds. Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 284–288 (2008).
Bradac, C. et al. Observation and control of blinking nitrogen-vacancy centres in discrete nanodiamonds. Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 345–349 (2010).
Galland, C. et al. Two types of luminescence blinking revealed by spectroelectrochemistry of single quantum dots. Nature 479, 203–207 (2011). This work first revealed that two types of blinking co-exist in CdSe/CdS nanocrystals, using single-particle measurements with an electric-field stimulus.
McGuinness, L. P. et al. Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells. Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 358–363 (2011).
Zhang, Q., Li, Y. L. & Tsien, R. W. The dynamic control of kiss-and-run and vesicular reuse probed with single nanoparticles. Science 323, 1448–1453 (2009).
Maletinsky, P. et al. A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres. Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 320–324 (2012).
Kucsko, G. et al. Nanometre-scale thermometry in a living cell. Nature 500, 54–58 (2013).
Tatebayashi, J. et al. Room-temperature lasing in a single nanowire with quantum dots. Nat. Photon. 9, 501–505 (2015).
Wöll, D. & Flors, C. Super-resolution fluorescence imaging for materials science. Small Methods 1, 1700191 (2017).
Jin, D. et al. Nanoparticles for super-resolution microscopy and single-molecule tracking. Nat. Methods 15, 415–423 (2018).
Himmelstoß, S. F. & Hirsch, T. A critical comparison of lanthanide based upconversion nanoparticles to fluorescent proteins, semiconductor quantum dots, and carbon dots for use in optical sensing and imaging. Methods Appl. Fluoresc. 7, 022002 (2019).
Akkerman, Q. A., Raino, G., Kovalenko, M. V. & Manna, L. Genesis, challenges and opportunities for colloidal lead halide perovskite nanocrystals. Nat. Mater. 17, 394–405 (2018).
Moerner, W. E. & Kador, L. Optical detection and spectroscopy of single molecules in a solid. Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2535–2538 (1989).
Orrit, M. & Bernard, J. Single pentacene molecules detected by fluorescence excitation in a p-terphenyl crystal. Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716–2719 (1990).
Empedocles, S. A., Norris, D. J. & Bawendi, M. G. Photoluminescence spectroscopy of single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots. Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3873–3876 (1996).
Nirmal, M., Dabbousi, B. O., Bawendi, M. G. & Macklin, J. Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals. Nature 383, 802 (1996).
Galland, C. et al. Lifetime blinking in nonblinking nanocrystal quantum dots. Nat. Commun. 3, 908 (2012).
Efros, A. L. & Nesbitt, D. J. Origin and control of blinking in quantum dots. Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 661–671 (2016).
Hu, J. et al. Linearly polarized emission from colloidal semiconductor quantum rods. Science 292, 2060–2063 (2001).
Hadar, I., Hitin, G. B., Sitt, A., Faust, A. & Banin, U. Polarization properties of semiconductor nanorod heterostructures: from single particles to the ensemble. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 502–507 (2013).
Ebenstein, Y., Mokari, T. & Banin, U. Fluorescence quantum yield of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals investigated by correlated atomic-force and single-particle fluorescence microscopy. Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4033–4035 (2002).
Orfield, N. J. et al. Quantum yield heterogeneity among single nonblinking quantum dots revealed by atomic structure-quantum optics correlation. ACS Nano 10, 1960–1968 (2016).
Fan, F. et al. Continuous-wave lasing in colloidal quantum dot solids enabled by facet-selective epitaxy. Nature 544, 75–79 (2017). This study demonstrated that strain-optimized quantum dots with narrow emission linewidth can achieve continuous-wave lasing under a low pumping threshold.
Beveratos, A., Brouri, R., Gacoin, T., Poizat, J.-P. & Grangier, P. Nonclassical radiation from diamond nanocrystals. Phys. Rev. A 64, 061802 (2001).
Vlasov, I. I. et al. Molecular-sized fluorescent nanodiamonds. Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 54–58 (2014).
Zeng, X. et al. Visualization of intra-neuronal motor protein transport through upconversion microscopy. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 58, 9262–9268 (2019).
Haziza, S. et al. Fluorescent nanodiamond tracking reveals intraneuronal transport abnormalities induced by brain-disease-related genetic risk factors. Nat. Nanotechnol. 12, 322–328 (2017). This work experimentally demonstrated the advantage of using photostable nanodiamond to perform long-term single-particle tracking.
Zhao, J. et al. Single-nanocrystal sensitivity achieved by enhanced upconversion luminescence. Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 729–734 (2013).
Wu, S. et al. Non-blinking and photostable upconverted luminescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10917–10921 (2009). This paper reported non-blinking and non-bleaching fluorescence from single lanthanide-doped nanocrystals.
Liu, Q. et al. Single upconversion nanoparticle imaging at sub-10 W cm−2 irradiance. Nat. Photon. 12, 548–553 (2018). This work developed a type of UCNP with uniform and bright emissions at low-power irradiance.
Park, Y. I. et al. Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent. Adv. Mater. 21, 4467–4471 (2009).
Ma, C. et al. Optimal sensitizer concentration in single upconversion nanocrystals. Nano Lett. 17, 2858–2864 (2017).
Gargas, D. J. et al. Engineering bright sub-10-nm upconverting nanocrystals for single-molecule imaging. Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 300–305 (2014).
Zhou, J., Xu, S., Zhang, J. & Qiu, J. Upconversion luminescence behavior of single nanoparticles. Nanoscale 7, 15026–15036 (2015).
Farka, Z., Mickert, M. J., Hlavacek, A., Skladal, P. & Gorris, H. H. Single molecule upconversion-linked immunosorbent assay with extended dynamic range for the sensitive detection of diagnostic biomarkers. Anal. Chem. 89, 11825–11830 (2017).
Lu, Y. et al. Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals. Nat. Photon. 8, 32–36 (2014). This paper first reported the controllable growth of a library of lifetime poly-dispersed UCNPs for optical multiplexing.
Fan, Y. et al. Lifetime-engineered NIR-II nanoparticles unlock multiplexed in vivo imaging. Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 941–946 (2018).
Ghosh, S. et al. Photoluminescence of carbon nanodots: dipole emission centers and electron-phonon coupling. Nano Lett. 14, 5656–5661 (2014).
Chizhik, A. M. et al. Super-resolution optical fluctuation bio-imaging with dual-color carbon nanodots. Nano Lett. 16, 237–242 (2016).
Khan, S. et al. Charge-driven fluorescence blinking in carbon nanodots. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8, 5751–5757 (2017).
Tian, Y. et al. Giant photoluminescence blinking of perovskite nanocrystals reveals single-trap control of luminescence. Nano Lett. 15, 1603–1608 (2015).
Becker, M. A. et al. Bright triplet excitons in caesium lead halide perovskites. Nature 553, 189–193 (2018).
Hu, F. et al. Superior optical properties of perovskite nanocrystals as single photon emitters. ACS Nano 9, 12410–12416 (2015).
Park, Y. S., Guo, S., Makarov, N. S. & Klimov, V. I. Room temperature single-photon emission from individual perovskite quantum dots. ACS Nano 9, 10386–10393 (2015).
Balasubramanian, G. et al. Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions. Nature 455, 648–651 (2008).
Rendler, T. et al. Optical imaging of localized chemical events using programmable diamond quantum nanosensors. Nat. Commun. 8, 14701 (2017).
Tessier, M. D., Javaux, C., Maksimovic, I., Loriette, V. & Dubertret, B. Spectroscopy of single CdSe nanoplatelets. ACS Nano 6, 6751–6758 (2012).
Labeau, O., Tamarat, P. & Lounis, B. Temperature dependence of the luminescence lifetime of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 257404 (2003).
Rainò, G. et al. Single cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals at low temperature: fast single-photon emission, reduced blinking, and exciton fine structure. ACS Nano 10, 2485–2490 (2016).
Javaux, C. et al. Thermal activation of non-radiative Auger recombination in charged colloidal nanocrystals. Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 206–212 (2013).
Fu, M. et al. Neutral and charged exciton fine structure in single lead halide perovskite nanocrystals revealed by magneto-optical spectroscopy. Nano Lett. 17, 2895–2901 (2017).
Isarov, M. et al. Rashba effect in a single colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystal detected by magneto-optical measurements. Nano Lett. 17, 5020–5026 (2017).
Canneson, D. et al. Negatively charged and dark excitons in CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals revealed by high magnetic fields. Nano Lett. 17, 6177–6183 (2017).
Tamarat, P. et al. The ground exciton state of formamidinium lead bromide perovskite nanocrystals is a singlet dark state. Nat. Mater. 18, 717–724 (2019). This paper reported the direct spectroscopic signature of dark exciton emission from single lead bromide perovskite nanocrystals at cryogenic temperatures and under magnetic fields.
Maze, J. R. et al. Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond. Nature 455, 644–647 (2008).
Neukirch, L. P., von Haartman, E., Rosenholm, J. M. & Nick Vamivakas, A. Multi-dimensional single-spin nano-optomechanics with a levitated nanodiamond. Nat. Photon. 9, 653–657 (2015).
Park, K., Deutsch, Z., Li, J. J., Oron, D. & Weiss, S. Single molecule quantum-confined Stark effect measurements of semiconductor nanoparticles at room temperature. ACS Nano 6, 10013–10023 (2012).
Marshall, J. D. & Schnitzer, M. J. Optical strategies for sensing neuronal voltage using quantum dots and other semiconductor nanocrystals. ACS Nano 7, 4601–4609 (2013).
Park, K. et al. Membrane insertion of-and membrane potential sensing by-semiconductor voltage nanosensors: feasibility demonstration. Sci. Adv. 4, e1601453 (2018).
Wen, S. et al. Future and challenges for hybrid upconversion nanosystems. Nat. Photon. 13, 828–838 (2019).
Sun, M. et al. Site-selective photoinduced cleavage and profiling of DNA by chiral semiconductor nanoparticles. Nat. Chem. 10, 821–830 (2018).
Tan, C., Chen, J., Wu, X.-J. & Zhang, H. Epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures. Nat. Rev. Mater. 3, 17089 (2018).
Laramy, C. R., O’Brien, M. N. & Mirkin, C. A. Crystal engineering with DNA. Nat. Rev. Mater. 4, 201–224 (2019).
Ji, B. et al. Strain-controlled shell morphology on quantum rods. Nat. Commun. 10, 2 (2019).
Đorđević, L. et al. Design principles of chiral carbon nanodots help convey chirality from molecular to nanoscale level. Nat. Commun. 9, 3442 (2018).
Liu, W. et al. Fluorescent nanodiamond-gold hybrid particles for multimodal optical and electron microscopy cellular imaging. Nano Lett. 16, 6236–6244 (2016).
Li, X., Zhao, D. & Zhang, F. Multifunctional upconversion-magnetic hybrid nanostructured materials: synthesis and bioapplications. Theranostics 3, 292–305 (2013).
Kianinia, M. et al. All-optical control and super-resolution imaging of quantum emitters in layered materials. Nat. Commun. 9, 874 (2018).
Oracz, J. et al. Ground state depletion nanoscopy resolves semiconductor nanowire barcode segments at room temperature. Nano Lett. 17, 2652–2659 (2017).
Chen, C. et al. Multi-photon near-infrared emission saturation nanoscopy using upconversion nanoparticles. Nat. Commun. 9, 3290 (2018).
Fischer, S., Swabeck, J. K. & Alivisatos, A. P. Controlled isotropic and anisotropic shell growth in β-NaLnF4 nanocrystals induced by precursor injection rate. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139, 12325–12332 (2017).
Zhuo, Z. et al. Manipulating energy transfer in lanthanide-doped single nanoparticles for highly enhanced upconverting luminescence. Chem. Sci. 8, 5050–5056 (2017).
Liu, D. et al. Three-dimensional controlled growth of monodisperse sub-50 nm heterogeneous nanocrystals. Nat. Commun. 7, 10254 (2016).
Zhang, Y. et al. Multicolor barcoding in a single upconversion crystal. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 4893–4896 (2014).
Yang, X. et al. Mirror-enhanced super-resolution microscopy. Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16134 (2016).
Chizhik, A. I., Rother, J., Gregor, I., Janshoff, A. & Enderlein, J. Metal-induced energy transfer for live cell nanoscopy. Nat. Photon. 8, 124 (2014).
Prigozhin, M. B. et al. Bright sub-20-nm cathodoluminescent nanoprobes for electron microscopy. Nat. Nanotechnol. 14, 420–425 (2019).
Watanabe, T. M., Fukui, S., Jin, T., Fujii, F. & Yanagida, T. Real-time nanoscopy by using blinking enhanced quantum dots. Biophys. J. 99, L50–L52 (2010).
Yang, X. et al. Versatile application of fluorescent quantum dot labels in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. ACS Photonics 3, 1611–1618 (2016).
Taylor, R. W. et al. Interferometric scattering microscopy reveals microsecond nanoscopic protein motion on a live cell membrane. Nat. Photon. 13, 480–487 (2019).
Zhanghao, K. et al. Super-resolution dipole orientation mapping via polarization demodulation. Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16166 (2016).
Wang, M. et al. Polarization-based super-resolution imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles with orientational information. Nanoscale 10, 19757–19765 (2018).
Khan, S. et al. Small molecular organic nanocrystals resemble carbon nanodots in terms of their properties. Chem. Sci. 9, 175–180 (2018).
Chizhik, A. M. et al. Imaging and spectroscopy of defect luminescence and electron–phonon coupling in single SiO2 nanoparticles. Nano Lett. 9, 3239–3244 (2009).
Tarpani, L. et al. Photoactivation of luminescent centers in single SiO2 nanoparticles. Nano Lett. 16, 4312–4316 (2016).
Chizhik, A. I. et al. Measurement of vibrational modes in single SiO2 nanoparticles using a tunable metal resonator with optical subwavelength dimensions. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 223902 (2012).
Chu, S. Nobel lecture: the manipulation of neutral particles. Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 685–706 (1998).
Maragò, O. M., Jones, P. H., Gucciardi, P. G., Volpe, G. & Ferrari, A. C. Optical trapping and manipulation of nanostructures. Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 807–819 (2013).
Lin, L. et al. Opto-thermoelectric nanotweezers. Nat. Photon. 12, 195–201 (2018).
Crozier, K. B. Quo vadis, plasmonic optical tweezers? Light Sci. Appl. 8, 35 (2019).
Xin, H. et al. Single upconversion nanoparticle-bacterium cotrapping for single-bacterium labeling and analysis. Small 13, 1603418 (2017).
Ndukaife, J. C. et al. Long-range and rapid transport of individual nano-objects by a hybrid electrothermoplasmonic nanotweezer. Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 53–59 (2016).
Berthelot, J. et al. Three-dimensional manipulation with scanning near-field optical nanotweezers. Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 295–299 (2014).
Trichet, A. et al. Nanoparticle trapping and characterization using open microcavities. Nano Lett. 16, 6172–6177 (2016).
Cohen, A. E. Control of nanoparticles with arbitrary two-dimensional force fields. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 118102 (2005).
Cohen, A. E. & Moerner, W. E. Method for trapping and manipulating nanoscale objects in solution. Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 093109 (2005).
Xiong, H. et al. Stimulated Raman excited fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging. Nat. Photon. 13, 412–417 (2019). This work developed an all-far-field single-molecule Raman spectroscopy and imaging technique.
Ren, W. et al. Anisotropic functionalization of upconversion nanoparticles. Chem. Sci. 9, 4352–4358 (2018).
Kukura, P., Celebrano, M., Renn, A. & Sandoghdar, V. Imaging a single quantum dot when it is dark. Nano Lett. 9, 926–929 (2009).
Celebrano, M., Kukura, P., Renn, A. & Sandoghdar, V. Single-molecule imaging by optical absorption. Nat. Photon. 5, 95 (2011); correction 12, 309 (2018).
Streed, E. W., Jechow, A., Norton, B. G. & Kielpinski, D. Absorption imaging of a single atom. Nat. Commun. 3, 933 (2012).
Heylman, K. D. et al. Optical microresonators as single-particle absorption spectrometers. Nat. Photon. 10, 788–795 (2016).
Chien, M. H., Brameshuber, M., Rossboth, B. K., Schutz, G. J. & Schmid, S. Single-molecule optical absorption imaging by nanomechanical photothermal sensing. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 115, 11150–11155 (2018).
Li, M. et al. Total internal reflection-based extinction spectroscopy of single nanoparticles. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 58, 572–576 (2019).
Jensen, R. A. et al. Optical trapping and two-photon excitation of colloidal quantum dots using bowtie apertures. ACS Photonics 3, 423–427 (2016).
Purcell, E. M., Torrey, H. C. & Pound, R. V. Resonance absorption by nuclear magnetic moments in a solid. Phys. Rev. 69, 37–38 (1946).
Brokmann, X., Coolen, L., Dahan, M. & Hermier, J. P. Measurement of the radiative and nonradiative decay rates of single CdSe nanocrystals through a controlled modification of their spontaneous emission. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107403 (2004).
Macklin, J. J., Trautman, J. K., Harris, T. D. & Brus, L. E. Imaging and time-resolved spectroscopy of single molecules at an interface. Science 272, 255–258 (1996).
Ambrose, W. P., Goodwin, P. M., Keller, R. A. & Martin, J. C. Alterations of single molecule fluorescence lifetimes in near-field optical microscopy. Science 265, 364–367 (1994).
Buchler, B., Kalkbrenner, T., Hettich, C. & Sandoghdar, V. Measuring the quantum efficiency of the optical emission of single radiating dipoles using a scanning mirror. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063003 (2005).
Holzmeister, P. et al. Quantum yield and excitation rate of single molecules close to metallic nanostructures. Nat. Commun. 5, 5356 (2014).
Ringler, M. et al. Shaping emission spectra of fluorescent molecules with single plasmonic nanoresonators. Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203002 (2008).
Chizhik, A. I. et al. Probing the radiative transition of single molecules with a tunable microresonator. Nano Lett. 11, 1700–1703 (2011).
Gonell, F. et al. Aggregation-induced heterogeneities in the emission of upconverting nanoparticles at the submicron scale unfolded by hyperspectral microscopy. Nanoscale Adv. 1, 2537–2545 (2019).
Zhang, Z., Kenny, S. J., Hauser, M., Li, W. & Xu, K. Ultrahigh-throughput single-molecule spectroscopy and spectrally resolved super-resolution microscopy. Nat. Methods 12, 935–938 (2015).
LeCun, Y., Bengio, Y. & Hinton, G. Deep learning. Nature 521, 436–444 (2015).
Butler, K. T., Davies, D. W., Cartwright, H., Isayev, O. & Walsh, A. Machine learning for molecular and materials science. Nature 559, 547–555 (2018).
Zhou, J., Huang, B., Yan, Z. & Bünzli, J.-C. G. Emerging role of machine learning in light-matter interaction. Light Sci. Appl. 8, 84 (2019).
Zhang, P. et al. Analyzing complex single-molecule emission patterns with deep learning. Nat. Methods 15, 913–916 (2018).
Ouyang, W., Aristov, A., Lelek, M., Hao, X. & Zimmer, C. Deep learning massively accelerates super-resolution localization microscopy. Nat. Biotechnol. 36, 460–468 (2018).
Tian, B. et al. Low irradiance multiphoton imaging with alloyed lanthanide nanocrystals. Nat. Commun. 9, 3082 (2018).
We acknowledge support from the Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery Early Career Researcher Award Scheme (DE180100669), Shenzhen Science and Technology Program (KQTD20170810110913065) and Australia China Science and Research Fund Joint Research Centre for POCT (ACSRF65827).
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Zhou, J., Chizhik, A.I., Chu, S. et al. Single-particle spectroscopy for functional nanomaterials. Nature 579, 41–50 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2048-8
Trends in hyperspectral imaging: from environmental and health sensing to structure-property and nano-bio interaction studies
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (2022)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (2022)
Polarized upconversion luminescence from a single LiLuF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystal for orientation tracking
Science China Materials (2022)
Light: Science & Applications (2021)
Reversible 3D optical data storage and information encryption in photo-modulated transparent glass medium
Light: Science & Applications (2021)