Commercial prosthetic devices currently do not provide natural sensory information on the interaction with objects or movements. The subsequent disadvantages include unphysiological walking with a prosthetic leg and difficulty in controlling the force exerted with a prosthetic hand, thus creating health issues. Restoring natural sensory feedback from the prosthesis to amputees is an unmet clinical need. An optimal device should be able to elicit natural sensations of touch or proprioception, by delivering the complex signals to the nervous system that would be produced by skin, muscles and joints receptors. This Review covers the various neurotechnological approaches that have been proposed for the development of the optimal sensory feedback restoration device for arm and leg amputees.
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We acknowledge support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme FeelAgain (grant agreement no. 759998), by H2020-EIC-FTI-2018-2020 GoSafe (grant agreement no. 870144), by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) and Innosuisse under the Bridge Proof of Concept programme (MYLEG no. 193724), SNSF grant MOVEIT (no. 205321_197271) and Innosuisse grant (no. 47462.1 IP-ICT). The funders had no role in the manuscript preparation or submission.
S.R. and F.M.P. hold shares of SensArs Neuroprosthetics Sarl, a start-up company dealing with the commercialization of neurocontrolled artificial limbs. G.V. declares no competing interests.
Peer review information Nature Materials thanks the anonymous reviewers for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
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Raspopovic, S., Valle, G. & Petrini, F.M. Sensory feedback for limb prostheses in amputees. Nat. Mater. 20, 925–939 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-021-00966-9
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