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Detection of gluten immunogenic peptides and the Celiac Disease Adherence Test to monitor gluten-free diet: a pilot study

Abstract

Gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) in feces and/or urine have recently been proposed as a sensitive and specific marker to detect ongoing gluten intake. Here, we compared GIP with the Celiac Disease Adherence Test (CDAT), a simple validated self-administered questionnaire that measures adherence to gluten-free diet (GFD). Of 70 subjects (59 women), six were classified as non-adherent by fecal GIP (mean 0.23 µg/g, standard deviation 0.08, range 0.082–0.319), including five classified as non-adherent by CDAT. GFD adherence was significantly higher by GIP than CDAT (p < 0.001). Fecal GIP may be useful as a biomarker for ongoing gluten intake that is not possible to detect with current clinical methods to assess GFD adherence, and may play a role in the management of persistent gastrointestinal symptoms in celiac disease.

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Funding

Throne Holst Nutrition Research Foundation, South East Health Authorities.

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GIS, FvM, KEAL, CH, and MBV conceived and designed the study protocol, FM and MS acquired data, and GIS, FvM, and MBV analysed and interpreted the results. GIS, FvM, and CH, drafted the manuscript and MS, KEAL, and MBV participated in the revision of the manuscript. All authors approved the final version. All authors agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

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Correspondence to Marit Bragelien Veierød.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Skodje, G.I., van Megen, F., Stendahl, M. et al. Detection of gluten immunogenic peptides and the Celiac Disease Adherence Test to monitor gluten-free diet: a pilot study. Eur J Clin Nutr (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-021-01054-6

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-021-01054-6

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