Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable plasma cell malignancy. Although little is known about the etiology of MM, several metabolic risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, poor nutrition, many of which are modifiable, have been linked to the pathogenesis of numerous neoplasms including MM. In this article, we provide a detailed summary of what is known about the impact of obesity on the pathogenesis of MM, its influence on outcomes in MM patients, and discuss potential mechanisms through which obesity is postulated to influence MM risk and prognosis. Along with advancements in treatment modalities to improve survival in MM patients, focused efforts are needed to prevent or intercept MM at its earliest stages. The consolidated findings presented in this review highlight the need for clinical trials to assess if lifestyle modifications can reduce the incidence and improve outcomes of MM in high-risk populations. Data generated from such studies can help formulate evidence-based lifestyle recommendations for the prevention and control of MM.
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This research was funded in part through the NIH/NCI Cancer Center Support Grant (P30 CA008748) and supported by the American Society of Hematology Clinical Research Training Institute Award, TREC Training Workshop (R25 CA203650), International Myeloma Society and Paula and Rodger Riney Foundation CDA, Parker Institute of Cancer Immunotherapy CDA and NCI K12 CA184746 CDA (UAS). This study was funded in part by the National Institutes of Health (F32 CA220859, K22 CA251648), TREC Training Workshop (R25 CA203650) and the American Cancer Society (PF-17–231–01-CCE). This research was also supported by a Stand Up To Cancer Dream Team Research Grant (Grant Number: SU2C-AACR-DT28–18). Stand Up To Cancer is a program of the Entertainment Industry Foundation. Research grants are administered by the American Association for Cancer Research, the scientific partner of Stand Up To Cancer. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the author(s) and are not necessarily endorsed by Stand Up To Cancer, the Entertainment Industry Foundation, or the American Association for Cancer Research (CRM).
UAS has received research funding from Celgene/Bristol Myers Squibb, Janssen to her institution and honorariums for continuing medical education activity from the Physicians Education Resource, all outside of the submitted work. RP, SMT, and CRM declare no competing interests.
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Parikh, R., Tariq, S.M., Marinac, C.R. et al. A comprehensive review of the impact of obesity on plasma cell disorders. Leukemia (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01443-7