Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Synthesis of layered LiMnO2 as an electrode for rechargeable lithium batteries


RECHARGEABLE lithium batteries can store more than twice as much energy per unit weight and volume as other rechargeable batteries1,2. They contain lithium ions in an electrolyte, which shuttle back and forth between, and are intercalated by, the electrode materials. The first commercially successful rechargeable lithium battery3, introduced by the Sony Corporation in 1990, consists of a carbon-based negative electrode, layered LiCoO2 as the positive electrode, and a non-aqueous liquid electrolyte. The high cost and toxicity of cobalt compounds, however, has prompted a search for alternative materials that intercalate lithium ions. One such is LiMn2O4, which has been much studied as a positive electrode material4–7; the cost of manganese is less than 1% of that of cobalt, and it is less toxic. Here we report the synthesis and electrochemical performance of a new material, layered LiMnO2, which is structurally analogous to LiCoO2. The charge capacity of LiMnO2 (270mAhg–1) compares well with that of both LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4, and preliminary results indicate good stability over repeated charge–discharge cycles.

This is a preview of subscription content

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. Oyama, N., Tatsuma, T., Sato, T. & Sotomura, T. Nature 373, 598–600 (1995).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Scrosati, B. Nature 373, 557–558 (1995).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Nagaura, T. 3rd Int. Battery Seminar (Deerfield Beach, FL, 1990).

    Google Scholar 

  4. Thackeray, M. M., David, W. I. F., Bruce, P. G. & Goodenough, J. B. Mater. Res. Bull 18, 461–472 (1983).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Huang, H. & Bruce, P. G. J. Power Sources 54, 52–57 (1995).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Tarascon, J.-M. & Guyomard, D. Electrochimica Acta 38, 1221–1231 (1993).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Pistoia, G. & Wang, G. Solid St. Ionics 66, 135–142 (1993).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Rossouw, M. H., Liles, D. C. & Thackeray, M. M. J. Solid St. Chem. 104, 464–466 (1993).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Thackeray, M. M. J. electrochem. Soc. 142, 2558–2563 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Leroux, F., Guyomard, D. & Piffard, Y. Solid St. Ionics 80, 299–306 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Fuchs, B. & Kemmler-Sack, S. Solid St. Ionics 68, 279–295 (1994).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Bruce, P. G. & Armstrong, A. R. UK Patent Application January 1996.

  13. Matthewman, J. C., Thompson, P. & Brown, P. J. J. appl. Crystallogr. 15, 167–173 (1982).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Huang, H. & Bruce, P. G. J. electrochem. Soc. 141, L106–L107 (1994).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Armstrong, A., Bruce, P. Synthesis of layered LiMnO2 as an electrode for rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature 381, 499–500 (1996).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Further reading


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing